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Andhra Pradesh Drought Adaptation Initiative (APDAI)



Promotion of Network based Backyard Poultry (BYP)

 

Major bottleneck in the promotion of backyard poultry is constant supply of chicks in adequate numbers, generating surplus over household consumption, health care services and linking with markets. Promotion of Chick Rearing Centers (CRCs) as a small business enterprises and establishing their linkages with the chick suppliers is taken up, not only as part of APDAI, but also in different ongoing programs.

 

In Mahabubnagar district, Department of Animal Husbandry was promoting back yard poultry with a subsidy of Rs. 25/- per bird. It agreed to support the CRCs in the APDAI project through this program. After few cycles with the improved birds, it was realized that substantial demand is there for local breed for its taste and quality. The market price for local breed both for egg and meat is also higher than that of improved breeds. Thus, Chick Rearing Centre with chicks of Local Breeds was also taken up in Anantapur District.

 

The key strategy of this initiative was to enable the rearers to rear two days old chicks in Chick Rearing Centre (CRC) up to 4-6 weeks and sell to the households/ local markets, for backyard poultry or for immediate consumption. Since availability of chicks of the local birds was a problem, the improved birds mainly Vanaraja (developed by Project Directorate, Poultry), Grama Priya and Rajashree (developed by AICRP centre of SV Veterinary University) were tried. Vanaraja and Rajashree are dual purpose breeds, with lot of popularity and acceptance. As the program was focused on household incomes and nutrition, the choice of keeping the birds for egg-laying was left to the individuals. The Institutional process was laid on the platform of women groups and federations at village and mandal level. The Village Organization identifies a poor family (most often a middle/ late aged single women) for the purpose and provides her with a loan and chick rearing infrastructure. The infrastructure is purchased under a capital grant and is owned by the federation.

 

The rearer has to identify a vacant house with proper ventilation and takes up chick rearing. MMS helps her with getting chicks from the source, either from Project Directorate on Poultry or from AICRP centre of SV Veterinary University, by placing an advanced demand. The MMS aggregates demand for chicks from several such rearing centers suitable for a cheaper transport.

 

Apart from APDAI, efforts were also made to integrate BYP into State funded watershed development programs. About 38 chick rearing centers were taken up under watershed development program in Mahabubnagar district. About 14000 birds were reared and distributed into the backyards. It was also integrated into NABARD watershed programs; As part of WDF & IGWDP programs, 13 CRCs were grounded with 6500 chicks (see Box 1: Details of BYP Cycles taken up under Different Programs).

Box No. 1: Details of BYP Cycles taken up under different programmes

Sl. No.

Program

No. of cycles

1.

APDAI

35

2.

Watershed development (DWMA)

35 (centers - one cycle)

3.

Department of Animal Husbandry

30 cycles (planned)

4.

Watershed development programme (NABARD)

5 cycles, 13 centers)

5.

Other programmes

2 centers (planned)

Total CRC Cycles

116

Total birds

About 51,500 birds in all


Thus, CRCs were streamlined as potential business enterprises for women headed households. While the SHGs provided the needed platform for market, MMS has taken care of training and health care services. Several complementary processes such as community based insurance against predation, share-cropping by the SHGs, feed supplementation etc., were tried.


With these experiences, it was realized that the rearer would get profits from 4th cycle centers onwards, but the margins vary with the efficiency of the rearer. Within a period of one and half months the rearers may earn between R.1000 to Rs.5000.

 

The income/net profit from the CRCs are mainly a function of the number of birds reared and the feed cost. Depending on the number of birds reared, the net profits ranged from Rs.1040 to Rs.5612- per one and half months; it comes to a wage rate ranging from Rs.23 to 125 per day (see Box 2: Cost benefit analysis of improved birds at Chick Rearing Centers in Mahabubnagar District).

Box No. 2: Cost benefit analysis of improved birds at Chick rearing centers in Mahabubnagar district

Village Name

Doulthabad Neetur Gokafasalvad Mungimalla

Total number of chicks

595

480

295

360

No. of chicks upto 6th week

535

404

256

354

Total cost of the chicks (Rs)

7140

4848

3072

4248

Feed consumed (Kg) upto 5th week

579

568

410

403

Total cost of the feed (Rs)

6658

6532

4715

4634

Total no. of waters

16

14

12

12

Total cost of the water (Rs)

208

182

156

156

Total no. of feeders

16

12

14

12

Total cost of the feeders (Rs)

272

204

238

204

Total no. of brooders

2

2

2

2

Total cost of the brooders (Rs)

100

100

100

100

No. of bags of paddy husk

6

10

4

10

Total cost of the paddy husk (Rs)

208

182

156

156

CRC rental charges (Rs)

300

300

300

300

Total medicine cost (Rs)

476

384

236

288

Miscellaneous (Rs)

305

504

215

539

Total expenditure upto 6th week (Rs)

15699

13504

9132

10819

Expenditure on one bird upto 6th week (Rs)

29.34

33.43

35.67

30.56

Total loan amount (Rs)

15670

13504

9132

10819

Interest @ 6% (Rs)

117.53

101.28

68.49

81.14

Loan amount to be repaid (Rs)

15787

13605

9200

10900

Gross profit (Rs)

21400

16160

10240

14160

Net profit (Rs)

5612

2555

1040

3260

Wage per day (Rs)

124.72

56.77

23.10

72.44

 

Key Lessons

The birds at CRC are usually priced on the basis of at the cost of chick + mark up price. Initially there was poor demand at the set price. Culled birds from commercial poultry in the local shandies at much cheaper prices have set stern competition. There was an initial commotion among the households owing to higher mortality rates due to predation and disease. It will take at least one and half to two years for the new breeds to settle down and establish a constant market. Eventually, direct sales by CRC would provide economic stability and a rhythm to the backyard poultry. Over experience, it was observed that subsidizing (12.5 -15%) the cost per bird at the point of sale from CRC is the best measure of providing public subsidy to backyard poultry birds on a continuous basis for five years; this is in addition to the initial investment in infrastructure, revolving fund, poultry housing etc. This will make these birds attractive.

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:: CONTENTS ::

Back

Diversified Farming Systems

Promotion of Millets through PDS and Integrating into the Farming System

SRI under Tank Commands and Borewells

Groundwater sharing through pooling of bore wells

Community managed common land development

Community managed livestock vaccination program

Deccani sheep breed improvement program

Promotion of Ram lamb rearing

Promotion of network based backyard poultry (BYP)

Community based inland fisheries

Leasing Plough Bullock Constraints for Poor Farmers

Efforts and Strategies to scale up APDAI initiatives

Watershed Support Services And Activities Network (W A S S A N)
12-13-452, Street No:1, Tarnaka, Secunderabad- 500 017, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Ph: + 91- 40- 27015295 / 27015296/ Fax: 27018581
E-mail :
wassan@eth.net

WASSAN, www.wassan.org