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Year 2016

The System of Crop Intensification - Agroecological Innovations for Improving Agricultural Production, Food Security and Resilience to Climate
NABARD Knowledge Series - 2, Written by SRI - RICE of Cornell University USA, and published by Department of Economic and Analysis and Research, NABARD, Head Office, Mumbai | March 2016

Foreword by Shri. R. Amalorpavanathan, Deputy Managing Director, NABARD, Mumbai, India: This publication reports on current work in progress to raise the agricultural productivity of a wide range of crops, in eco-friendly ways and in a number of countries around the world. We think that farmers, communities and institutions especially in India would like to know about these innovations so as to benefit from these emerging opportunities to the extent that they can. Farmers in India and other countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America are finding that they can increase the productivity of their presently available resources for growing a variety of crops - just by making changes in the ways that they manage their plants, soil, water and nutrients. This is known as the System of Crop Intensification (SCI), which is derived from ideas and experience with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), now spreading throughout India. A great benefit which has emerged from SRI and SCI is that their practices make crops more resilient to the multiple stresses to climate change. This publication is being co-published by NABARD, the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, a national apex institution for agriculture and rural development promoted by the Government of India and SRI-Rice, a center for research and outreach operating at Cornell University in the USA. NABARD plays a major role in the transfer of technology among Indian farmers and communities for increasing their production and productivity, while SRI-Rice assembles and provides wide access to agroecological information, supporting a worldwide effort to make agriculture more productive, efficient, equitable and sustainable. Many contributors have made their report possible, although most of the writing for this monograph was done by Prof. Norman UPhoff of Cornell University on their behalf to make an integrated presentation. Prior to the material, data, pictures and feedback that the co-authors provided for this publication, it was their close and effective collaboration with farmers in their respective countries that has led to the phenomenon of SCI which is reported on in this small volume. This booklet is presenting a set of ideas and experiences that we hope will encourage farmers to 'think out-side the boxes' of their current practices and to capitalize upon certain biological processes and potentials that exist both within their present crops and within the soil systems in which these crops grow. The experiences of NABARD in implementing a dedicated project to promoting SRI practices in 13 major rice-growing states of India - which have prompted our Bank's further interest in SCI - have been summarized here in Annex 3. The particular experience of working with NGOs in a big way in Jharkhand state of India, with an appropriately adapted model of action, has also been highlighted (see also Ghosh et al, 2014). We hope that as more knowledge about SCI opportunities is gained through people's experimentation and experience that this will be communicated and widely shared. Both NABARD and SRI-Rice welcome feedback and will try to disseminate information on further experience with SCI, both good and bad, to enable households in India and beyond to have more secure and prosperous lives.

For hard copies, please contact Mr. R. Subramanian ( with your postal address.. Download PDF (Free)

Year 2015

The System of Rice Intensification: Responses to Frequently Asked Questions
Author(s): Dr. Norman Uphoff, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform (First Edition, December 12, 2015)

The System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI, is a management strategy for crop improvement. Its ideas, insights and practices are based on scientifically validated knowledge for increasing the production of not only irrigated rice but of other crops as well. SRI represents a paradigm shift in agricultural thinking and practice toward agroecological farming that can be used by even the poorest smallholding farmers in ecologically fragile regions of the world to achieve food security in the face of the climate-change challenges ahead. When the author Norman Uphoff first learned about SRI in Madagascar in 1993, this production system which offered higher yields with reduced inputs seemed implausible to him. But the professor put aside his skepticism after seeing farmers who had been getting rice yields of just two tons per hectare produce four times more rice—for three years in a row—on their very poor soils, not changing their varieties or relying on agrochemical inputs, and using less water. Now, he's helping to disseminate this dramatically effective methodology with this accessible, easy-to-use sourcebook. It offers explanations, research references, vivid pictures, and concrete examples of the award-winning SRI methodology to anyone interested in the development of practicable sustainable food systems. Now, he's helping to disseminate this revolutionary methodology with this accessible, easy-to-use primer. It offers explanations, resources, and concrete examples of the award-winning SRI to anyone interested in the development of practicable sustainable food systems. Download PDF (Free)

Year 2014

The system of crop intensification: Agro-ecological innovations to improve agricultural production, food security, and resilience to climate change
Binju Abraham, Hailu Araya, Tareke Berhe, Sue Edwards, Biksham Gujja, Ram Bahadur Khadka, Y.S. Koma, Debashish Sen, Asif Sharif, Erika Styger, Norman Uphoff and Anil Verma, SRI International Network and Resources Center (SRI-Rice) | January 2014

This monograph on the System of Crop Intensification (SCI), published by the SRI International Network and Resources Center (SRI-Rice), Cornell University, USA, is a compilation of extraordinary reports from the field written by the Centre's Norman Uphoff and Erika Striger and their research partners from South Asia and East Africa. SCI, an ensemble of agro-ecological innovations generalised from the precursor System of Rice Intensification (SRI), aims to achieve higher output with less use of or less expenditure on land, labour, capital, and water – all by making modifications in crop management practices. The contributors to this monograph are reporting as initiators or supporters of the changes being introduced, not as researchers studying them, although all have done and continue to do publishable research. By communicating observed outcomes achieved under real-world circumstances as accurately as possible, this information could stimulate the interest of others to undertake more systematic studies and to help establish scientific explanations for promoting the greater utilisation of SCI adaptations. The focal crops of the systems of agricultural intensification described in this monograph include wheat, tef, maize, finger millet, sugarcane, legumes and vegetables.. Download PDF (Free)

Year 2013

Knowledge Sharing Event - Learnings from Participatory Technology Development (PTD) program
Inter Cooperation | November 27-28, 2013

A two days knowledge sharing event was organized on 27 – 28 November 2013 at Gobind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology (GBPUAT), Pantnagar, Uttarakhand campus to share the results of ongoing research and development activities especially focusing on System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method in Basmati under the project ‘Sustainable Production of Organic and Fair Trade Rice in India’ supported by Coop Switzerland and HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation in collaboration with Intercooperation Social Development India (ICSD), Nature Bio Foods and GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology. Download PDF (Free)

"Enhancing System of Rice Intensification (SRI) - Transforming Rice Production with SRI - Knowledge and Practice - Reducing Agriculture Footprint and Ensuring Food Security"
Author(s): Prof. T.M. Thiyagarajan and Dr. Biksham Gujja, National Consortium on SRI (NCS) and supported by AgSRI, RRA Network and HIVOS | February 2013

This publication released in the NCS workshop on February 23, 2013 at New Delhi. The National Consortium on SRI is a coalition of practitioners, policy makes, resource institutions and scientists, who are keen to spread SRI on a large scale in the country. The NCS is conceptualized as a think-tank in which the members have come together voluntarily to advance the science, strengthen practice and take up policy advocacy in favour of SRI. This publication is an effort by the NCS to showcase to the world the current state-of-the-science of SRI. Download PDF (Free)

Enhancing agricultural livelihoods through community institutions in Bihar, India
Author(s): Behera, Debaraj; Chaudhary, Arvind Kumar; Vutukuru, Vinay Kumar; Gupta, Abhishek; Machiraju, Sitaramachandra; Shah, Parmesh, World Bank | January 2013

Bihar’s agriculture sector employs more than eighty percent of the labor force and more than four-fifths of these farmers are small and marginal. They have one of the lowest agricultural productivity in India that has not increased due to several constraints. Jeevika, a project jointly supported by the World Bank and the Government of Bihar, has piloted, customized and eventually scaled-up several innovative livelihood interventions to improve the well-being of poor households in Bihar. A number of innovative aspects account for the success of these livelihoods programs in the state. Foremost among these is the fact that it was implemented through community-driven and community-owned institutions. The institutional platform that was facilitated by the project has enabled the creation of a single-window system at the doorstep of small and marginal farmers. Farmers can now demand better services from the public sector, access credit from commercial banks, and experiment and customize various technologies. This note will focus on System of Crop Intensification’ (SCI), which has evolved from a well-known farming methodology called System of Rice Intensification. It has been customized and adopted for wheat, green gram, oil seeds and vegetables in Bihar. The participant farmers have witnessed 86% increase in rice productivity and 72% increase in wheat productivity. The profitability of rice cultivation has increased 2.5 times and has almost doubled for oil-seeds. Since 2008, implementation of SCI has contributed to an additional income increase of around US$10.7 million. Download PDF (Free)

Year 2012

Knowledge Sharing Event - Learnings from Participatory Technology Development (PTD) program
Inter Cooperation | November 16-17, 2012

The knowledge sharing event provides a platform to share experiences with other stakeholders involved in the organic basmati sector on the ongoing research and development activities, and facilitates exchange of technical know-how and tools among them and the farming community. With such objective Knowledge Sharing Event was organized by ICSD in joint collaboration with GBPUAT on 16-17 October 2012 at GBPUAT campus. Download PDF (Free)

Report on System of Rice Intensification - Pilot Project in Jharkhand (2011-12)
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, Jharkhand Regional Office, Ranchi, Jharkhand | Year 2012

The report presents the results and outcome of the SRI pilot project supported by NABARD in the State of Jharkhand over a period of two years, 2010-2012, involving, 34,170 farmers and covering 8,542 acres of paddy-growing area. In all, 52 projects were implemented through 49 Project Implementing Agencies with support from 5 Resource Agencies in 23 districts in Jharkhand. The incremental food security through SRI over that of traditional method of cultivation ranged from 118 days in the case of the smallest landholding class (<1 acre) to 683 days in the case of the largest landholding class (>2 acres). The yield attributes of paddy following System of Rice Intensification management showed considerable improvement over the yield attributes when following traditional farming. In respect to number of effective tillers per hill, the average count was 32.5 under SRI as against 5 under traditional method; number of grains per panicle was 219 under SRI as against 137 under traditional management; grain yield was 62 Q/Ha under SRI as against 33 Q/Ha under traditional practice; and straw yield was 68 Q/Ha under SRI and 41 Q/Ha with traditional method. The results also indicated much better economic returns from SRI compared to traditional system of rice cultivation. Download PDF (Free)

"Enhancing employment and sustaining production - Framework for Integration of System of Rice Intensification with Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)"

"Enhancing employment and sustaining production - Framework for Integration of System of Rice Intensification with Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)", National Consortium on SRI, released for the Round Table Meeting on SRI for the XII Five Year Plan held at CSD in Delhi on 13 January, 2012.

This note lays out a framework for supporting SRI under MGNREGS and is intended for evolving a programmatic action. It draws insights from field experiences across the country in compiling the options and the framework. Download PDF (Free)

Year 2009

New Hope for Indian Food Security? The System of Rice Intensification
Author(s): Biksham Gujja and T.M. Thiyagarajan, IIED Publication | November 2009

Rice is the main source of food for more than half the world’s population and its cultivation secures a livelihood for more than two billion people. The introduction of high-yielding varieties, fertilisers, pesticides and irrigation has improved rice yields significantly and expanded the area under which rice is cultivated. However, in the last 20 years yields and the area under rice have stagnated. The two most significant reasons for this stagnation are the lack of adequate water for irrigation and the increased costs of cultivation. India will need to produce a lot more rice if it is to meet the growing demand, likely to be 130 million tonnes of milled rice in 2030 according to some estimates. Since there is not much scope to increase the area of rice cultivation (due to urbanisation and severe water constraints), the additional production will have to come from less land, less water and less human labour. Download PDF (Free)

Realize full potential of Paddy Plant - SRI Method of Paddy Cultivation

The objective of this booklet is to give the principles and opportunities behind the below aspects. To achieve higher productivity in paddy. SRI method of paddy cultivation helps in achieving the below.

- A Plant should have more number of tillers
- The number of effective tillers should be higher
- The number of grains in a panicle should be higher
- The grain weight should be more.

Download PDF (Free)

System of Rice Intensification - Growing More Rice with Less Water

SRI method facilities innovation and local adaptation of practices. Farmers should further refine these practices according to their local situation. Farmers in different places are adopting such approach and enhancing the knowledge related to SRI.. Download PDF (Free)


Small pictorial booklet on "Principles of SRI - Desirable & Non Desirable Practices"

This is developed basing upon a conceptual note prepared in the WWF workshop. This tries to remove the confusion on 'what is SRI' for administrative purposes and clearly identifies the non-desirable practices. While detailing the basic principles, the booklet does away with prescriptive norms; so much essential considering the significance of 'flexibility' in evolving SRI approaches. This re-artifulcation of the principles of SRI has evolved during the Working Group meeting on SRI organized by WWF - ICRISAT on 2nd February 2009. Several working group members have contributed to this process. Dr. T.M. Thiyagarajan and Dr. Norman Thomas Uphoff have provided intensive inputs into refining the principles. Download PDF (Free)

Taking roots: Experiences with System of Rice Intensification in Andhra Pradesh

The experience on system of rice intensification from Andhra Pradesh demonstrates that the yield of rice can be increased by 25% or more by changing soil, water and nutrient management. Download PDF (Free)

System of Rice Intensification - Weeders (A Reference Compendium)

In SRI method of Paddy Cultivation, weeds are not seen as a problem, but as an opportunity. As the weeds are incorporated into the soil by way of mechanical weeder, it helps build up of soil organic matter and subsequently large and diverse microbial population in the soil. Now various weeders are available for use in SRI. Few innovative farmers did several experiments for different soil situations and easy operation accordingly design changes are made. Some farmers even developed multi-row weeders. This reference compendium provides a glimpse of these innovative designs. Download PDF (Free)


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