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Year 2017

System of crop intensification for more productive, resource-conserving, climate-resilient, and sustainable agriculture: experience with diverse crops in varying agroecologies
Author(s): Prabhakar Adhikari, Hailu Araya, Gerald Aruna, Arun Balamatti, Soumik Banerjee, P. Baskaran, B. C. Barah, Debaraj Behera, Tareke Berhe, Parag Boruah, Shiva Dhar, Sue Edwards, Mark Fulford, Biksham Gujja, Harouna Ibrahim, Humayun Kabir, Amir Kassam, Ram B. Khadka, Y. S. Koma, U. S. Natarajan, Rena Perez, Debashish Sen, Asif Sharif, Gurpreet Singh, Erika Styger, Amod K. Thakur, Anoop Tiwari, Norman Uphoff & Anil Verma, International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | November 20, 2017

With continually increasing demand for food accompanied by the constraints of climate change and the availability and quality of soil and water, the world’s farmers are challenged to produce more food per hectare with less water, and with fewer agrochemical inputs if possible. The ideas and methods of the system of rice intensification which is improving irrigated rice production are now being extended/adapted to many other crops: wheat, maize, finger millet, sugarcane, tef, mustard, legumes, vegetables, and even spices. Promoting better root growth and enhancing the soil’s fertility with organic materials are being found effective means for raising the yields of many crop plants with less water, less fertilizer, reduced seeds, fewer agrochemicals, and greater climate resilience. In this article, we review what is becoming known about various farmer-centred innovations for agroecological crop management that can contribute to agricultural sustainability. These changes represent the emerging system of crop intensification, which is being increasingly applied in Asian, African, and Latin American countries. More research will be needed to verify the efficacy and impact of these innovations and to clarify their conditions and limits. But as no negative effects for human or environmental health have been identified, making these agronomic options more widely known should prompt more investigation and, to the extent justified by results, utilization of these methodologies.


Morphological characters of rice influenced by different planting methods and nitrogen treatments
Author(s): S. Praneeth, D. Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, R. Mahender Kumar and P.C. Latha, Green Farming, Volume 8 (5): 1048-151 | September - October 2017

This paper examines the morphological characters under different planting methods and nitrogen treatments. Morphological characters like plant height, tiller number and effective tillers performed well under system of rice intensification (SRI) compared to normal transplantation (NTP). Among the nitrogen management practices 75% inorganic+ 25% organic (N5) treatment showed better performance compared to 100% inorganic (N6), 100 % organic (N2), 50% organic + 50% inorganic (N4), 75% organic +25% inorganic (N3) and control (N1).


System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
Editor(s): K.N. Bhatt and Pradeep Bhargava and Foreword: Norman Uphoff, Studium Press (India) Pvt Ltd. | Year 2017

System of Rice Intensification explores alternative ways of resource efficient method for paddy cultivation comparing it with the existing resource intensive post Green Revolution conventional method. The book marks a shift from the adoption of scientific and technological practices emanating from a centralized knowledge system and centralized management of input supply to one based on indigenous knowledge systems and local supplies.

There are 15 research papers covering (a) SRI Method, Technology, Resource Use Efficiency and Productivity, (b) Biodiversity and Ecological Security and (c) SRI Future Area Expansion and Policy Concerns. The papers describe evolution of an innovation that is basically farmer centric, reduces water inputs, and challenges high input driven post Green Revolution agricultural practices.

This book shall meet an emergent need to rewrite agricultural policies that are environment friendly, cost efficient and resource efficient.


Building Climate Resilience
Author(s): Seema Ravandale, Vinod Niranjan and Debashish Sen, LEISA India Magazine (June 2017)

In distressed situations of drought and floods, tribal farmers of southern Bundelkhand region illustrated that System of Crop Intensification (SCI), an agro ecological method, helps build climate resilience. The socio-technical approach based on building upon the traditional knowledge and innovative capacities of farmers, proved to be effective in building climate resilience cropping systems.


Study of economics of paddy cultivation under transplantation, system of rice intensification (SRI) and direct seeding in Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh
Author(s): Devi D.A. Rajini, Kumari R. Vijaya, Reddy P. Divakar, Dinesh T.M., Indian Journal of Economics and Development | April 26, 2017

This study compares the costs and returns of paddy farms under SRI, transplantation and direct seeding methods. A pre-tested schedule was used to collect data through survey method related to the rabi season. The study was based on input-output data from 90 sample paddy farmers i.e., 30 each adopting transplantation, SRI and direct seeding methods were selected randomly in Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh. The Cobb-Douglas production function analysis indicated increasing returns to scale in SRI (∑bi =1.0821) and decreasing returns to scale for transplanted farms (∑bi =0.8734) and direct seeded farms (∑bi =0.8374) indicating that SRI was comparatively better system than transplantation and direct seeding methods. The production elasticities are negative for manures and fertilizers (−0.0036) in SRI, plant protection chemicals (−0.0060) in transplantation, and fertilizers (0.0270) in direct seeded paddy farms indicating the excess usage of these inputs.


Experience with the System of Rice Intensification for Sustainable Rainfed Paddy Farming Systems in India
Author(s): Arun Balamatti and Norman Uphoff, Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems | March 2017

Principles of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), an agroecological methodology for improving rice crop performance, was introduced in the Dharwad district of Karnataka, India, in 2008 by an NGO wanting to improve the sustainability of rainfed paddy farming systems. Farmer Field Schools enabled 82 farmers to adopt and adapt SRI practices in the initial season. SRI’s alternative practices were found to contribute to healthier roots and more productive tillers, the average number of tillers per plant on farmers’ SRI and control plots being 19 and 7, respectively. SRI was found to require 87% less seed than with traditional methods; yet it gave 40% more yield per unit area in a drought year. The economic returns per hectare were 76% greater. There was some early evidence of soil fertility improvement, but this can only be assessed over longer periods of time. Three years after introduction, over 3,000 farmers had continued adopting SRI practices in the district. In another three years, the number using these new methods had reached almost 29,000 in Dharwad and neighboring districts.


Adoption of Natural Resource Management Technologies under Information Constraints: The Case of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in India
Author: Poornmia Varma, Indian Institute Management | March 3, 2017

This study examines the role of information constraints in the adoption of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in India by explicitly incorporating information in the adoption model. The results showed that effective information along with other factors such as membership in farmer organisation, availability of labourers, irrigation facility etc were important in determining the SRI adoption. The results also revealed the importance of scaling up of activities under the Government of India’s National Food Security Mission programme for promoting greater dissemination and adoption of SRI.


Adoption of System of Rice Intensification and its Impact on Rice Yields and Household Income: An Analysis for India
Author: Poornmia Varma, Indian Institute Management | March 2, 2017

Natural resource management (NRM) technologies, such as the system of rice intensification (SRI) are recognized as a promising systemic approach to enhance rice production at affordable costs without harming the environment. Yet there is no consensus in the literature with respect to the factors influencing the adoption as well as the welfare outcomes of adoption. This paper identifies the factors that affect farmers’ decisions to adopt SRI in major rice producing States of India and its impact on rice yield and household income. The multinomial endogenous treatment effects model adopted in the present study analyses the factors influencing the adoption and the impact of adoption in a joint framework. Results suggest that household assets, irrigation, access to information etc. increased the likelihood of household adopting SRI whereas the size of landholding, the number of years household stayed in rice cultivation, fear of poor yield, etc. decreased the likelihood of adopting SRI. The welfare impacts of SRI adoption revealed that all combinations of SRI individually and as a group (plant management, water management and soil management) had an impact on yield. However, the impact of SRI adoption on household income was quite mixed.


A socioeconomic study on pros and cons of SRI method of paddy cultivation in Ormanjhi block of Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India
Author(s): Agarwal Punit Kumar and Kumar Ajay, Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | February 10, 2017

Rice is a staple food for more than half of the world's population. World rice production nearly doubled since the 1960s to the 1980s, mainly due to the green revolution. A major issue with the traditional system of paddy production, particularly green revolution technology is input intensive and was also continuing cash-rich farmers. Increasing prices of agricultural inputs prevent poor farmers from completely adopting modern production technologies.

Water demand by rice farmers was also continued increasing under such circumstances, any strategy that could produce higher rice yields with less water and less expenditure is the need of the day. Under such circumstances, the system of rice intensification (SRI) method was suitable and followed by the farmers. The system of rice intensification is a method for increasing the productivity of rice cultivation while at the same time reducing inputs, including seeds and fertilisers, and water requirements. The present study was conducted in Ormanjhi block of Ranchi district, to study the socio-economic profile of paddy growers, perception and constraints confronted by paddy growers under SRI method of paddy cultivation.

The study revealed that the major constraints in SRI production were the lack of awareness, scarcity of skilled labour, nursery management, and drudgery in cono-weeder uses. The major perception regarding SRI method of paddy cultivation was low demand of water, higher yield, remuneration from the government, low seed requirement, low costs of input uses.


Rice Productivity and Food Security in India - A Study of the System of Rice Intensification
Author: Varma, Poornima, Agricultural Economics, Springer Singapore | Year 2017

This book contributes to the adoption of agricultural technology in general and to literature on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in particular by identifying the factors that influence the decision to adopt SRI and examining SRI’s impact on household income and yield. The study also discusses the importance of SRI in achieving higher rice productivity and food security. Conducted on behalf of the Government of India’s Ministry of Agriculture from October 2014 to March 2016, the study collected detailed and extensive household-level data.

As the second largest producer and consumer, India plays an important role in the global rice economy. Food security in India has been traditionally defined as having a sufficient supply of rice at an affordable price. However, in recent years rice cultivation in India has suffered from several interrelated problems. Increased yields achieved during the green revolution period and with the help of input-intensive methods involving high water and fertiliser use are now showing signs of stagnation and concomitant environmental problems due to salinisation and waterlogging of fields. Water resources are also limited; as such, water for irrigation must contend with increasing industrial and urban needs.

As a result of all these factors, rice farmers have experienced a downturn in productivity growth. Since increasing the area of rice cultivation is not feasible, the additional production has to be achieved using less land, less water and fewer additional inputs. The new intensification methods for rice cultivation known as the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), which originated in Madagascar, offer a promising systemic approach to enhancing rice production at affordable costs by simultaneously reducing input requirements and causing less harm to the environment. The SRI approach is expected to enhance yield and substantially reduce water and other input requirements by altering plant, soil, water and nutrient management practices. With SRI taking firm root in India, the book examines and analyses the adoption and the economic impact of SRI in three major rice producing States of India: Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.


Year 2016

Stakeholders in SRI innovation systems
Author(s): Dr. Suchiradipta Bhattacharjee and Dr. Saravanan Raj, LEISA India Magazine | December 2016

In the small North East Indian state of Tripura, System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has grown to develop into an innovation system where various stakeholders have come together to make the state self-sufficient in rice production. The lessons learnt from the SRI innovation systems in Tripura, if applied to similar crops and contexts, would definitely prove to be a model for development and prosperity.


Rice Productivity and Food Security in India - A Study of the System of Rice Intensification
Author: Varma, Poornima, Agricultural Economics, Springer Singapore | Year 2017

This book contributes to the adoption of agricultural technology in general and to literature on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in particular by identifying the factors that influence the decision to adopt SRI and examining SRI’s impact on household income and yield. The study also discusses the importance of SRI in achieving higher rice productivity and food security. Conducted on behalf of the Government of India’s Ministry of Agriculture from October 2014 to March 2016, the study collected detailed and extensive household-level data.

As the second largest producer and consumer, India plays an important role in the global rice economy. Food security in India has been traditionally defined as having a sufficient supply of rice at an affordable price. However, in recent years rice cultivation in India has suffered from several interrelated problems. Increased yields achieved during the green revolution period and with the help of input-intensive methods involving high water and fertiliser use are now showing signs of stagnation and concomitant environmental problems due to salinisation and waterlogging of fields. Water resources are also limited; as such, water for irrigation must contend with increasing industrial and urban needs.

As a result of all these factors, rice farmers have experienced a downturn in productivity growth. Since increasing the area of rice cultivation is not feasible, the additional production has to be achieved using less land, less water and fewer additional inputs. The new intensification methods for rice cultivation known as the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), which originated in Madagascar, offer a promising systemic approach to enhancing rice production at affordable costs by simultaneously reducing input requirements and causing less harm to the environment. The SRI approach is expected to enhance yield and substantially reduce water and other input requirements by altering plant, soil, water and nutrient management practices. With SRI taking firm root in India, the book examines and analyses the adoption and the economic impact of SRI in three major rice producing States of India: Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa.


Knowledge level of the Farmers on SRI Method of Paddy Cultivation
Author: Channamallikarjuna D and Syed sadaqath, International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, Volume 1, Issue 4 | November - December 2016

The present study was conducted in Dharwad district of Karnataka, where in some parts are coming under paddy growing area and also as it comprises more rainfall with a maximum area under paddy cultivation. Fifteen SRI method paddy crop growers from each village were randomly selected to constitute the total sample size of 150. Structured interview schedule was used to collect the information through personal interview. Data was analyzed by using suitable statistical tools. The major findings of the study revealed that Paddy growers had medium (41.33%) knowledge level where as minimum of 30.67 and the least of 28.00 per cent of respondents had high and low knowledge level, respectively.


Innovating at the margins: the System of Rice Intensification in India and transformative social innovation
Author: Shambu C. Prasad, Research, part of a special feature on Game-Changers and Transformative Social Innovation, Ecology and Society, Volume 21, No 4 | Year 2016

I explore transformative social innovation in agriculture through a particular case of agroecological innovation, the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in India. Insights from social innovation theory that emphasize the roles of social movements and the reengagement of vulnerable populations in societal transformation can help reinstate the missing “social” dimension in current discourses on innovation in India. India has a rich and vibrant tradition of social innovation wherein vulnerable communities have engaged in collective experimentation. This is often missed in official or formal accounts. Social innovations such as SRI can help recreate these possibilities for change from outside the mainstream due to newer opportunities that networks present in the twenty-first century. I show how local and international networks led by Civil Society Organizations have reinterpreted and reconstructed game-changing macro-trends in agriculture. This has enabled the articulation and translation of an alternative paradigm for sustainable transitions within agriculture from outside formal research channels. These social innovations, however, encounter stiff opposition from established actors in agricultural research systems. Newer heterogeneous networks, as witnessed in SRI, provide opportunities for researchers within hierarchical research systems to explore, experiment, and create newer norms of engagement with Civil Society Organizations and farmers. I emphasize valuing and embedding diversity of practices and institutions at an early stage to enable systems to be more resilient and adaptable in sustainable transitions.


Is Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) Technology More Profitable than Conventional Method for Sugarcane Production? — An Economic Analysis
Author(s): Arthi K., Saravanakumar V., Balasubramanian R., Agricultural Economics Research Review | July 1, 2016

The study has examined profitability, sources of productivity improvement and determinants of a new technology-Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) —adoption in sugarcane cultivation in Tamil Nadu by collecting primary data from 120 sugarcane farms during 2014–15. Although the cost of cultivation has been found higher in SSI method vis-a-vis conventional method, the cost of production is lower due to 26 per cent more cane yield. The cost and return analysis has indicated that sugarcane cultivation is more profitable under SSI method than under the conventional method. The decomposition analysis has shown that the inputs, viz. fertilizers, micro-nutrients and deployment of labour are the major sources of productivity enhancement in the SSI method. The estimates of logit model have indicated that farmers’ educational level and experience are the major determinants of adoption of SSI method in sugarcane cultivation. The major policy options suggested to improve production and profitability of sugarcane include a provision of drip irrigation with a subsidy, ensuring timely availability of critical inputs and imparting periodical training to farmers on SSI method such as fertigation, wide row spacing, etc.


Resource use efficiency in rice production under SRI andconventional method in Assam, India
Author(s): Ishani Parasar, J.P. Hazarika and Nivedita Deka, Agricultural Science Digest | June 3, 2016

To meet the rising demand for rice, the staple food in Assam, the production of rice has to be increased by many folds. Considering the shrinkage of agricultural lands, productivity increase is the only way out to increase the production. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is reported to enhance rice yield to considerable extent. However, the acceptability of the method by the tradition rice growers of the state is a matter of concern. Further, the resource use status of SRI is yet to be studied systematically in Assam. The present study on resource use in SRI has shown that the resources used in SRI need to be increased for enhanced rice production the state. Awaring the farmers about SRI and imparting proper training on SRI would certainly help the farmers to increase their rice production to make them rice secured.


System of Rice Intensification provides environmental and economic gains but at the expense of social sustainability — A multidisciplinary analysis in India
Author(s): Alfred Gathorne-Hardya, D. Narasimha Reddy, M. Venkatanarayana, Barbara Harriss-White, Agriculture Systems, Volume 143 | March 2016

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is claimed to make rice more sustainable by increasing yields while reducing water demand. However, there remains a shortage of high quality data to test these assertions, and a major research gap exists concerning the wider social and economic implications of SRI techniques. Using primary data we developed a model to simultaneously analyse social, economic and environmental sustainability (greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, ground water abstracted, energy use, costs, profit, gender, employment quality and employment quantity) to compare SRI to conventional flooded-rice production systems (control). Data was based on farmer-recall questionnaires in Andhra Pradesh, India. Analysis was per hectare and per kg of paddy.SRI offered substantial environmental and economic benefits: > 60% yield gain; GHG emissions, ground-water, fossil energy down by 40%, 60%, and 74% kg− 1 respectively. SRI costs reduced significantly ha− 1, and returns after costs increased by over 400% ha− 1. However, the socio-economic benefits accrued to the farmer at the expense of landless labourers. Employed labour demand (h ha− 1) reduced to 45% of control, with the greatest decline in female employment — rural India's most vulnerable sector. SRI reduced casual labour remuneration per hectare by 50%. Doubling rates of pay maintain total casual-labour remuneration, and only reduces SRI farm returns by 10%. Yet with no policy support it is unlikely that the private economic benefits of SRI will be shared to landless labourers. Internalising environmental externalities (electricity and GHG) impacted control farms more than SRI farms, including producing negative economic returns when electricity was charged at INR4.7 unit− 1 for control farms. Increasing the farm gate price for paddy by 10% increased control farm returns by 38%, yet even with this substantial increase control farm returns were only a third of SRI returns without a price increase. Identifying and understanding the trade-offs associated with SRI is essential for policy management — while it is not possible to eliminate all trade-offs, identifying them allows for the mitigation of losers.


Adoption pattern of SRI technology amongst the paddy growers of Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh
Author(s): V. Meshram, N. Chobitkar and K.K. Singh, Indian Research Journal Extension Education | January 2016

Rice is the staple food crop of India, providing 43 per cent of caloric requirement for more than 73 per cent of Indian population. The demand can only be met by maintaining the increase in productivity under decreasing trend of land availability and total factor productivity and has to meet the demands for sustainability and preservation of environment quality. Assembly of the practices that culminated in SRI began in the 1960s based on Fr. de Laulanie’s observation of ‘positive-deviant’ farmer practices, starting with planting single seedlings instead of multiple seedlings in a clump, and not keeping irrigated paddy fields flooded during the rice plants’ vegetative growth stage. Keeping this in view the study was designed to find out the extent of adoption of recommended practices of SRI technology of paddy cultivation and relationship of the characteristics of paddy growers with their level of adoption. The study was conducted in Balaghat district of Madhya Pradesh during the year 2009 to 2010. Total 103 respondents were selected on random basis.


Effectiveness of Behaviour of Rice Farmers in propagating system of rice intensification (SRI) technology in Andhra Pradesh
Author: V. Hari Krishna, Indian Research Journal Extension Education | January 2016

SRI technology promises the much needed boost to productivity in rice with better water use efficiency. During the last decade, various agencies promoted this method of rice cultivation in Andhra Pradesh. However, the rate of adoption of SRI method by rice farmers is low. The purpose of the study was to understand the needs of the farmers in terms of knowledge and skills which can help improve the adoption rate of the technology. Data was collected using a questionnaire from a random sample of 150 SRI demonstration framers (N = 150) from the three North Coastal Districts of Andhra Pradesh. The study indicated that framers have developed positive attitude towards SRI technology. However, majority of the farmers feel that many of the operations of SRI method are labour intensive and time consuming. More than 80% of the farmers expressed the need for development of more efficient equipment for raising nursery, leveling and weeding. They felt the need for training agriculture labour in SRI techniques. Farmers expressed the need for season long contact and support of extension staff with information on irrigation technology and integrated crop management.


More Crop Per Drop of Water: Adoption and Dis-adoption Dyanamics of System of Rice Intensification
A.R. Durga and D. Suresh Kumar, IIM Kozhikode Society Management Review, Volume 5, No. 74-82 | January 2016

For efficient use of water, there is a dire need to manage acute water scarcity in agriculture through the adoption of sustainable water management technologies. To produce more crops per drop of water, the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) technology is being promoted. We undertook a case study in the state of Kerala, India, to examine the factors influencing adoption and dis-adoption of SRI. The humid and tropical climate of Kerala is conducive for rice cultivation. However, over the years, the area under rice cultivation in Kerala has been declining. In this context, SRI technology has emerged as a prominent tool to achieve increased rice production and thus productivity. The study reveals that factors such as experience in farming, income from off-farm and non-farm sources, size of landholding and contact with agriculture extension officers are significant determinants of adoption of SRI technology. On the other hand, factors such as difficulty in water management and early transplantation, non-availability of skilled labour and difficulty in using the cono weeder cause the dis-adoption of SRI. We suggest that, in addition to promoting SRI technology, it is also imperative to develop effective irrigation facilities and promote participatory irrigation management to produce more crop per drop of water. Many farmers who discontinued SRI technology cited the lack of institutional support and capacity building as the factors influencing their decision. Therefore, the state government needs to focus on these aspects so that not only dis-adoption can be minimized significantly, but more farmers can also be encouraged to adopt the technology in the coming years.


Effect of Nutrient Management in System of Rice Intensification (Sri) Cultivation Under South Gujarat Condition
Author(s): Patel Vipul, Mehta H.D., Amrutbhai Patel, Trends in Biosciences | January 13, 2016

An experiment was conducted under South Gujarat agro climatic condition at Regional Rice Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Vyara, (Gujarat) during kharif-2012 with a view to study the effect of nutrient management through organic and inorganic sources in SRI cultivation. The experiment was laid out in split plot design having two main treatments (Green manuring (G1) and without green manuring (G0)) and five sub treatments viz., no manuring (M1), 100% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) in the form of chemical fertilizer (M2), FYM (M3), bio-compost (M4) and vermicompost (M5). Green manuring (G1) treatment remained significantly better than without green manuring (G0) treatment for grain yield and majority of yield attributes. Green manuring significantly improve yield in SRI cultivation. Similarly sub treatment M2 (100% RDN) found significantly superior followed by bio-compost treatment (M4). Looking to yield and cost benefit ratio 100% RDN found best in SRI.


Year 2015

How Smallholder Farmers in Uttarakhand Reworked the System of Rice Intensification: Innovations from Sociotechnical Interactions in Fields and Villages
Author: Debashish Sen, Wageningen University and Research Center (WUR), School of Social Sciences, Students, Social Science Research Network | December 4, 2015

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is presented in Asia and other parts of the world as an alternative ‘agro-ecological’ and ‘farm-based’ innovation in rice production. SRI calls for modifications in crop-management practices without relying on external inputs, which makes it different from innovations based on new rice varieties, which became dominant since the Green Revolution. SRI practices are therefore said to be appropriate for resource-poor smallholder farmers. Previous studies on SRI have focused mainly on the yield effects in comparison with other crop management practices, overall costs and benefits of SRI or deviations from recommended practices. These studies have largely neglected farmers’ underlying strategies. This thesis provides an understanding of whether and how SRI can be called a ‘farm-based’ innovation. Rather than returning to earlier debates about SRI's adoption and disadoption, the study looks as how farm households and communities in Western Himalayan region of India responded to the introduction of SRI. The main objective of this research was to understand how farmers respond to an intervention like SRI and what this tells us about SRI as a socio-technical system. The main research question addressed by this thesis is how SRI, conceived as a set of practices introduced from outside the communities, was incorporated into the local rice farming system. Specifically, the thesis examines how existing work groups were adjusted to accommodate the new method, how the SRI practices were interpreted and adjusted to fit with the local social and agro-ecological arrangements, and how the new method influenced existing rice farming practices in the locality. The research was carried out in three contrasting villages of Uttarakhand, located in the Bhilangana sub-basin of the Western Himalayan region of India. SRI was introduced in this area in 2008. Fieldwork in the three villages was conducted throughout two rice seasons. The theoretical resources drawn upon for this research include the concept of “socio-technical system”, “agriculture as performance”, and the culture of “task groups”. Together these concepts help to understand rice farming as a collective and mutually shaping social and technical performance rather than the activity of an individual farmer. The thesis shows how existing and new rice farming practices and task groups are reconfigured through socio-technical innovations within a given agro-ecological setting. SRI acted as a catalyst, initiating a process of readjustments in the socio-technical configurations of rice farming, varying according to the local context. Farm households, while incorporating SRI into the existing farming system, try to seek complementarity and synergy between various rice farming methods. This allows fluidity among task groups and leads to the extension and diversification of the repertoire of methods used, taking into account the dynamics of the larger socio-economic conditions. The thesis highlights farmers’ adaptive capacities to reconfigure practices, reorganize social formations, and reschedule routines in response to farming interventions, in order to maximize the exploitation of agro-ecological niches, minimize uncertainty in farm production and rationalize the employment of the available work force. The study indicates a potential for task groups as units for effectively promoting new agricultural interventions. The groups performing farm operations are crucial in developing and adjusting farmers’ managerial skills to cater to the needs of the rice crop in light of the social and economic conditions of the community. For instance, elements of the set of SRI practices, like the use of younger seedlings, fewer seedlings per hill and wider spacing of hills were shown to have influenced practices in nominally ‘non-SRI’ plots. Changes in customary ritual like Din Bar announcing the date of rice transplanting, elevation in the status of Village Level Resource Persons (VLRPs), emergence of different forms of raised bed nurseries (RBNs), and inclusion of young women in transplanting groups reflect how introduction of SRI brought about changes in the social structure and institutions. This thesis thus highlights the role and importance of the human management component in farming activities and agricultural development. This provided insights into the integration of social and technical dimensions of crop cultivation, particularly the dynamics of rice farming using SRI but also for agronomy as a whole.


Design, development and field evaluation of manually operated rice transplanter for system of rice intensification
Author(s): GanapathiD, KumarA. Surendra, International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Biotechnology, Volume 8, Issue 3 | November 20 2015

A 2-row plug type rice transplanter with revolving magazine metering mechanism was developed and field evaluated for rice (Oryza sativa) crop. The seedlings of rice crop were grown in paper pot (80GSM). Plug technology was developed for the efficient production of high-quality seedlings for transplanting. Seedling parameters like root length, plant height, stem thickness and stem width and machine parameters like plant to plant spacing, planting depth, field capacity, field efficiency, total time of operation, speed of operation were recorded during field evaluation. The cost and time saved over manual transplanting without considering paddy seed cost was about 59.9 and 79.85 per cent. The cost of transplanting with considering seed cost was 3101 h−1. The field efficiency and field capacity of the transplanter was observed to be 83.22% and 0.014 ha h−1 respectively.


Comparing System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) with standard recommended practices in the northwestern plain zone of India
Author(s): Shiva Dhar, B.C. Barah, Abhay K. Vyas and Norman T. Uphoff, Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | October 31, 2015

The practices of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) methodology have been extended to wheat and various other crops with reported good results. To assess such reports with respect to wheat, an experiment was conducted at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi during 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. This experiment compared the performance of wheat under System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) and standard recommended practices (SRPs). In 2011–2012, the SWI yield of 7.93 t ha−1 was 30% higher than for SRP in 2012–2013, climatically a less favorable year, hence SWI performed relatively better with a 46% yield advantage under climate stress. SWI produced 12.5% less in the stressful year, while the reduction for the SRPs ranged from 18% to 31%. Differences in yield attributes and root traits were also observed in favor of SWI. Available N, P, and K in the soil after harvesting was increased with SWI, whereas depletion in nutrients with the SRPs indicated the scope for SWI sustaining soil fertility. Higher yield compensated for higher SWI costs of cultivation. A net return of US$ 1383 ha−1 was obtained with SWI, 35% more than the US$ 1020 ha−1 from SRPs. Overall, SWI outperformed the SRPs in terms of yields, climate resilience, and economics.


Frontline demonstration an effective way of popularization of system of rice intensification (SRI)
Author(s): Meena Vijendra Kumar, Edison Shoji Joy, Subramani Shinoj, Agricultural Science Digest - A Research Journal, Volume 35, Issue 3 | October 30, 2015

Frontline demonstrations (FLD) were conducted in 2011–12 and 2012–13 at eight farmer's fields, to popularize the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). SRI technology, cono weeder and two rice varieties were used in FLDs and improved technologies were compared with local practices. Joyti and Uma variety of paddy crop in SRI Method gave a higher yield of (30.7, 35.3 and 38.6, 40.7 q/ha) which was 10.1, 13.8 and 12.9, 14.1 q/ha more than farmers practices in the first and second year of FLD, respectively. Cono-weeder reduced the labour required for weeding by 35 man-days/ha and labour cost by Rs 20000–25000/ha. The seed requirement was found lesser in this system (10–12 kg vs 100 kg/ha), the young seedlings were used in order to initiate more tillering (14 days instead of 20–25 days old seedlings) and seedling number (1 in SRI vs. 3–4 seedlings in conventional system). Farmer's participatory evaluation indicated that SRI method is an acceptable and economically viable technology. As a result in 2012–13, an area of 5 ha, near to the FLD fields was subsequently converted to SRI system. In conventional rice, farming farmers use 20–25 days old seedling, ten times quantity of seeds, 3–4 seedlings per hill, standing water of 5cm and 55 labour per ha. This increases the cost of cultivation for the conventional method of farming by Rs 25450. Thereafter this technique more popular in Ernakulum, district.


Irrigation scheduling in direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.) - A review
Author(s): Kaur Jagmohan, Mahal S.S., Agricultural Reviews | Year 2015

Rice establishment can be done by many methods such as direct seeding of rice, transplanting, SRI (System of rice intensification) etc. For saving both water and labour, direct seeding is the most promising approach. There is possibility of reducing water requirement of direct seeded rice without affecting the grain yield in comparison to the continuous submergence. Depending upon the amount and distribution of rains as well as toposequence of the land, the DSR may be subjected to varying degree of moisture stress at different growth stages. The stress experienced at different growth stages may lead to decrease in plant height, panicle number, panicle length, test weight, number of tillers, total dry matter whereas non-puddled conditions result in the non-formation of hard pan at 15–20 cm soil layer which may restrict the root growth. Direct seeding rice culture showed irrigation water saving to the tune of 9–57%.


Frontline demonstration an effective way of popularization of system of rice intensification (SRI)
Author(s): Meena Vijendra Kumar, Edison Shoji Joy, Subramani Shinoj, Agricultural Science Digest - A Research Journal, Volume 35, Issue 3 | October 30, 2015

Frontline demonstrations (FLD) were conducted in 2011–12 and 2012–13 at eight farmer's fields, to popularize the System of Rice Intensification (SRI). SRI technology, conoweeder and two rice varieties were used in FLDs and improved technologies were compared with local practices. Joyti and Uma variety of paddy crop in SRI Method gave higher yield of (30.7, 35.3 and 38.6, 40.7 q/ha) which was 10.1, 13.8 and 12.9, 14.1 q/ha more than farmers practices in first and second year of FLD, respectively. Cono-weeder reduced the labour required for weeding by 35 man-days/ha and labour cost by Rs 20000–25000/ha. The seed requirement was found lesser in this system (10–12 kg vs 100 kg/ha), the young seedlings were used in order to initiate more tillering (14 days instead of 20–25 days old seedlings) and seedling number (1 in SRI vs. 3–4 seedlings in conventional system). Farmer's participatory evaluation indicated that SRI method is an acceptable and economically viable technology. Asa result in 2012–13, an area of 5 ha, near to the FLD fields was subsequently converted to SRI system. In conventional rice farming farmers use 20–25 days old seedling, ten times quantity of seeds, 3–4 seedlings per hill, standing water of 5cm and 55 labour per ha. This increases the cost of cultivation for conventional method of farming by Rs 25450. There after this technique more popular in Ernakulum, district.


Effect of seedlings age, cultivars and weed management on weed dynamics, nutrient removal and yield of rice (Oryza sativa) under system of rice intensification (SRI)
Author(s): U.N. Shukla, V.K. Srivasatava, Smita Singh, U.S. Ram, A.K. Pandey, The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol 85, No. 10 | Year 2015

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of age of seedlings, cultivars and weed management on weed dynamics, NPK removal and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under SRI at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi during 2010 and 2011 in split-plot design replicated thrice. The tender aged seedling (10 days) and hybrid rice cultivar PHB 71 had significantly marked potential to minimize the weed dynamics of grassy weeds (Echinochloa spp. and Cynodon dactylon), sedges (Fimbristylis miliacea and Cyperus spp.) and BLWs (Ammania baccifera and Ludwigia parviflora) significantly that resulted in marked reduction on total weed density, weed dry weight, weed index resulted in higher weed control efficiency over older seedling (15 days) of NDR 359. Four times cono-weeding at 10, 20, 30 and 40 DAT minimised grassy weeds over rest of the weeding treatments, but at par with pre and post-emergence application of pretilachlor + bispyribac-Na herbicides in respect of sedges and BLWs with total weed density that resulted in improving weed index due to higher weed control efficiency over 15 days old seedlings and other weed management treatment during both the years of study. Similarly, transplanting of younger seedlings (10 days) of PHB 71 produced significantly higher rice yield under 4 times cono-weeding closely followed by pre and post-emergence application of pretilachlor + bispyribac-Na. Significantly lower NPK removal by weeds at 45 DAT recorded with 10 days old seedling of PHB-71 under 4 times cono-weeding at 10, 20, 30 and 40 DAT (W4), though remained at par with pre and post-emergence application of pretilachlor + bispyribac-Na.


Enhancing water and cropping productivity through Integrated System of Rice Intensification (ISRI) with aquaculture and horticulture under rainfed conditions
Author(s): Amod K Thakur, Rajeeb K Mohanty, Rajbir Singh, Dhiraj U patil, Agricultural Water Management, Volume 161, Pages 65-76 | November 2015

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI), based on modifications in the management practices for rice cultivation, is being utilized in many countries, although not without some controversy. One reason cited for non-adoption or disadoption of SRI is difficulties with water management under rainfed conditions with unreliable or aberrant rainfall distribution, which causes either flooding or long dry spells, or both. These constraints could be dealt with by tapping groundwater resources or by capture and use of rainwater runoff and/or by diversification of the farming system. A 2-year field experiment was conducted in Odisha, India to evaluate SRI under rainfed conditions and also to explore options for enhancing the economic productivity of land and water under such conditions. Four rice cropping systems were evaluated: (i) conventional rice cultivation under rainfed conditions, (ii) SRI methods as adapted to rainfed cultivation, (iii) rainfed SRI methods with drainage facilities and supplementary pump-irrigation, and (iv) integrated SRI (ISRI) where rainwater runoff was harvested and stored for aquaculture and horticulture crops while also providing supplementary irrigation for the rice crop. The rice crop grown with adapted SRI practices under rainfed condition showed significant improvements in the plants’ morphology and physiology. Phenotypic changes included: greater plant height and tillering, more number of leaves, and expanded root systems. These changes were accompanied by changes in plants’ physiological functions like greater xylem exudation rate and more light interception by the canopy, increased chlorophyll content in the leaves, and higher light utilization and photosynthetic rates during flowering. These factors were responsible for improved yield-contributing characteristics and for higher grain yield (52%) as compared with crops grown by conventional production methods. Comparing yield from rainfed conventional vs. SRI methods between drought and normal-rainfall years indicated that the latter methods are more drought-tolerant and productive; greatly expanded and active root systems with SRI have been important contributing factors. Introducing drainage and supplementary irrigation improved both the grain yield (by 29%) and water productivity for rainfed SRI. Further, integrating aquaculture and horticulture with SRI management and rainwater harvesting increased the rice yield further (by 8%) and the net water productivity. This integrated system was found to raise the net income per unit of water by more than 60-fold compared to conventional rainfed rice cultivation. This option looks promising for improving food security for smallholders under erratic or diminished rainfall conditions.


Chemical Nutrient Analysis of Vermicompost and Their Effect on the Growth of SRI Rice Cultivation
Author(s): Thiruneela Kandan and Subbulakshmi, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, Issue 6 | June 2015

The importance of composts as a source of humus and nutrients to increase the fertility of soil and growth of plant has been well recognized in the present study. Vermicompost and Chemical fertilizer were taken first for chemical analysis and then to find the effect of these composts on the growth of SRI Rice Cultivation. It was found that the vermicompost was rich in nutrients like Potassium, Nitrate, Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, and Chloride and have the potential for improving plant growth than Fertilizer. The optimal growth of SRI Rice in our study conducted for a period of four month. The study also showed distinct differences between vermicompost and Chemical fertilizer in terms of their nutrient content and their effect on SRI Rice plant growth.


Impacts of rice intensification system on two C.D. Blocks of Barddhaman district, West Bengal
Author(s): Biswajit Ghosh and Namita Chakma, Current Science, Volume 109, No. 9 | July 25, 2015

Rice is an important cereal crop of West Bengal and in many of the Indian states. There is a compelling need to increase rice productivity vertically in West Bengal due to less availability of land and greater dependency of the population on the productivity of the land. For this reason, the economic and ecological potentiality of the system of rice intensification (SRI) has been evaluated by several researchers. In the present study, Monteswar and Memari-II C. D. blocks of Barddhaman district, West Bengal have been selected to analyse the impacts of SRI on economic and ecological aspects of rice-growing. Results show that benefit–cost (B : C) ratio in SRI practice is significantly higher than the conventional method of rice cultivation. Under SRI B : C ratio varies from 5.06 : 1 to 3 : 1, but in the conventional method it varies from 2.18 : 1 to 1.78 : 1. Therefore, SRI farmers are experiencing multiple benefits in terms of both economics and ecology.


System of rice (Oryza sativa) intensification for higher productivity and resource use efficiency–A review
Author(s): Dass Ancha, Kaur Ramanjit, Choudhary Anil K, Pooniya V, Raj Rishi, Rana K.S., Indian Journal of Agronomy | July 18, 2015

System of rice intensification (SRI) is a new method of rice (Oryza sativa L.) culture. This is an environment and ecology benign method that increases productivity and resource-use efficiency of irrigated rice by changing the way of managing soil, plants, water and nutrients. Emerged by chance in 1980s in Madagascar, it is now practiced on research farms and farmers’ fields in about 60 countries world-over. A record yield of 19 tonnes/ha has been reported by China, while in India 50–100% increases in yield have been reported over conventional rice culture. As per the general notion, SRI is not cultivar-specific. However, differential yield responses of cultivars have been observed under SRI at different locations in the country. SRI has been found to enhance yield of hybrids, and long- and medium-duration cultivars more than those of short-duration improved cultivars, and hence these are found more suitable for cultivation under SRI. Yield enhancement with SRI was greater under constrained soil conditions like acidic soils, red lateritic soil, etc. Wider spacing is one of the important principles of SRI and influences growth and yield of rice. Initially, planting spacing ranging from 25 cm × 25 cm to 50 cm × 50 cm was prescribed, but later on wide spread experiments across the world showed 25 cm × 25 cm to be the best planting spacing for SRI. However, some studies have suggested even lower spacing 20 cm × 20 cm to be ideal for SRI. Spacing of 25 cm × 25 cm seems to be better in kharif season, while in rabi season in southern India, 20 cm × 20 cm spacing appears to more rewarding than 25 cm × 25 cm. Seedling age of 10–12 days is invariably found suitable for transplanting to obtain higher yield and resource-use efficiency. Although under SRI yields were best when irrigations were scheduled at 3 days after disappearance of ponded water (DADPW), but larger water savings with some yield penalty suggests the delaying irrigations till 5 or 7 DADPW. Regarding nutrient management, it could be concluded that yield, profitability and resource-use efficiency from SRI under integrated nutrient management capsule consisting of 50% RDF + 50% nutrients from organic sources were either higher or equal to those obtained from the use of 100% RDF. Weeds infestation is more in SRI, which could be managed most economically by employing integrated weed management, using cono-weeder as one of the component.


Effect of nutrient sources on grain yield, methane emission and water productivity of rice (Oryza sativa) under different methods of cultivation
Author(s): Naik K.P. Suresh, Krishnamurthy N, Ramachandra C, Indian Journal of Agronomy | July 18, 2015

A field experiment was conducted during the rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Mandya, to study the sources of nutrient on yield, methane emission, and water productivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different methods of cultivation. Among the different methods of rice cultivation, system of rice intensification (SRI) method recorded higher water productivity (54.3 kg/ha-cm) than aerobic method (46.6 kg/hacm) and conventional method (29.9 kg/ha-cm) and resulted to the higher grain and straw yields of rice (8.55 and 10.07 t/ha) than the other methods of rice cultivation like conventional (7.05 and 8.38 t/ha) and aerobic method (6.48 and 7.83 t/ha). Among the sources of nutrients, application of recommended dose of fertilizer (100% N through neem-coated urea) recorded higher grain and straw yields (8.49 and 9.83 t/ha) over the other sources of nutrients, whereas the aerobic method of rice cultivation recorded lower methane emission (3.95 mg/plant/day) and total methane production (24.2 kg/ha) than SRI method (4.42 mg/plant/day and 28.1 kg/ha) and conventional method (6.25 mg/plant/day and 80.7 kg/ha) 90 days after sowing (DAS). Among the sources of nutrients, application of recommended dose of fertilizer (100% neem coated urea) recorded significantly lesser methane emission (4.35 mg/plant/day) and total methane production (37.9 kg/ha) than the other sources of nutrients but higher methane emission and production resulted by application of 50% N through paddy straw incorporation + 50% N through urea + recommended dose of P and K (5.56 mg/plant/day and 50.5 kg/ha) 90 days after sowing.


Weed management in rice grown under System of Rice Intensification
Author(s): Kunnathadi Musthafa, Abraham C.T., Thomas C. George, Department of Agronomy, College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara,  Thrissur, Kerala-680 656, Indian Journal of Weed Science | July 16, 2015

An experiment was conducted to assess the efficacy of different weed management practices in rice grown under the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in comparison with the conventional system. The study was carried out during 2007 and 2008 in the lateritic sandy clay loam soils at Pattambi, Kerala. Density and dry weight of weeds were higher in SRI especially when weed control was done through repeated cono weeding, while they were lower in the conventional system. Conventional system with cono weeding at 10 DAT followed by hand weeding at 30 DAT, and post-emergence herbicides alone reduced the weed dry weight significantly. Net returns and B:C ratio were also the highest in the conventional system with post-emergence application of cyhalofop-butyl 0.1 kg/hafollowed by metsulfuron-methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl. In SRI, the weed density and dry weight were the lowest with pre-emergence herbicide followed by hand weeding at 30 DAT, and cono weeding at 10 DAT followed by post-emergence herbicides. However, weed control with post-emergence application of cyhalofop-butyl,  followed by metsulfuron-methyl + chlorimuron-ethyl gave higher B:C ratio in both systems.


Importance of System of Rice Intensification Method for Mitigation of Arsenic in Rice
Author: Kanta Bokaria, International Journal of Advanced Research | May 2015

Our country has greater prospect to exploit rice as it is the dietary staple of India and Asia, its improvement gives good health to rice eaters. In arsenic affected regions rice assimilates much more arsenic from soils than other grain crops as it is cultivated anaerobically, rather than aerobically. Anaerobic cultivation leads to much greater arsenic mobilization, Unfortunately, extensive areas of land in rice producing regions have been contaminated through irrigation of paddy fields with ground water elevated in arsenic and through contamination from wastewater from base and precious metal activities. The genetics of arsenic uptake and accumulation has been very less studied in plants as compared to animals and human being. Naturally occurring resistance to high soil arsenic, has been observed in some species, which has shown to be caused by the reduction of phosphate as well as arsenate uptake.The persistence of heavy metals in the environment may pollute or contaminate soils and aqueous streams as both natural components or as the result of human activity. Amongst the various heavy metal contaminants arsenic and lead are recognized as the leading toxicants worldwide and having the various toxic effects on human and animal health as well as on the environment. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the arsenic contaminant in soil and also the mechanism of removal of these toxic metals from the contaminated sources by the potent application of plants and microbes and use of SRI method of planting . Rice is the major source of food for half of the world’s population. Paddy production entails use of costly resources a quarter to one third of world’s annual fresh water supply, fossil fuels and synthetic fertilizers leading to high ecological foot prints. Paddy fields also emit greenhouse gases to global warming, soil and water pollution. The system of Rice Intensification (SRI) is an answer to all these problems and it reverses the trends responsible for climate change. Around 40 countries of the world today are reaping the benefits of SRI. India’s focus for improving food security over the years has relied on intensive agriculture by improving yield per unit area using suitable varieties and improved input management. Such highly intensive agriculture dependent on fossil fuels, damaging to soil and fresh water and crop diversity is becoming questionable today. It is also discriminatory against the resource poor rain-fed areas and small and marginal farmers. The real challenge today is perhaps to develop/adopt strategies based on ecological principles and integrating traditional farming practices and biodiversity with scientific knowledge. However, concentrations may be higher in certain areas due to either natural conditions or human activities. High proportion of arsenic inhibition of seed germination decrease plant height reduction root growth, leaf area photosynthesis and low grain yield. According to (WHO), total daily intake should not exceed 2 mg of inorganic arsenic per kilogram of body weight. Acute arsenic intoxication muscular pain weakness with flicking skin severe nausea and vomiting colicky abdominal pain profuse diarrhea with rice-water stools. Capillary damage transudation of fluid in the bowel lumen numbness in hands and feet reddish rashes in the body intense thirst. In severe poisoning skin becomes cold and clammy circulatory collapse kidney damage decreased urine output. The experiment was conducted in split plot design with three replications. The main plots comprised of four planting methods, viz. conventional transplanting, system of rice intensification method, drum seeded and direct seeded. The SRI involved transplanting of 10 days old seedling/ hill at 25 x 25cm, conventional transplanting of 22 days 2-3 old seedlings/hill at spacing 20 x 10cm, line sowing with drum seed in puddle field at spacing of 20cm and direct seeded at spacing of 20cm. Sub plots consisted of nutrient management, viz. 100% NPK (120:60:60), 75% NPK + 25% farm yard manure and 50% NPK + 50% farm yard manure. The better performance of the crop under SRI was the outcome of enhanced growth measured in terms of significantly higher plant height, number of tillers/hill, dry matter accumulation and leaf area index at different growth stages as compare to other methods of planting rice. Since water use efficiency is quite less in SRI method as compared to conventional method arsenic uptake is also less in SRI as compared to conventional method. So SRI method is very highly recommended for increased productivity, ecological security and arsenic mitigation and economical.


Farmers knowledge on System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Andhra Pradesh, India
Author(s): K. Nirmala, R. Vasantha and K. Supriya, International Research Journal of Social Sciences | May 2015

The present investigation focused to study farmers Knowledge on SRI cultivation was carried out in Mahaboobnagar district, Andhra Pradesh. 120 SRI cultivated farmers constituted the sample. Ex-post facto research design was adopted in the investigation as selected variables have already occurred. A well prepared interview schedule consisting of 35 items testing the level of knowledge of farmers on recommended practices in SRI was prepared and administered. The findings revealed that on majority of farmers (67.5%) had knowledge on SRI cultivation practices to a medium level. Item analysis of Knowledge statements revealed that large majority of respondents had knowledge on items such as seed rate (100%), Varieties suitable for SRI (95%) spreading of seeds loosely and sparsely on nursery bed (85.83%), marker helps in drawing lines (89.17%) etc. Large majority do not possess knowledge on practices such as: number of hills recommended per square meter (62.5%) and weeding interval (43.3%). Correlation analysis revealed that, the variables viz. education, training in SRI, Extension contact, sources of information utilization, perception of respondents on SRI, innovativeness and input availability were found to be positively and significantly correlated to the level of Knowledge of SRI cultivating farmers.


Study on yield potentiality and spatial requirement of rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) in system of rice intensification (SRI) under red and laterite zone of West Bengal, India
Author(s): Kalyan Jana, G.K. Mallick, S. Ghosh and G. Sardar, Journal of Applied and Natural Science | May 30, 2015

Field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station, Bankura during kharif season 2009 and 2010 to study the yield potentiality and spatial requirement of rice varieties in system of rice intensification (SRI) under red and laterite zone of West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a three replications with two rice varieties (Swarna and Lalat). Performances of swarna and lalat varieties in SRI as compared to conventional method of rice cultivation (CMRC) were investigated. Swarna (MTU 7029) has yielded maximum grain yield (6.07, 5.66 and 5.86 t ha-1 during 2009, 2010 and in pooled, respectively) from the treatment T7 (25 × 25 cm spacing) under SRI. Lowest grain yield (3.55, 3.23 and 3.38 t ha-1 during 2009, 2010 and in pooled, respectively) was recorded from treatment T9 (Lalat at 20 × 15 cm spacing) under CMRC. SRI technology has potential in increasing more grain yield, it saves seed requirement and irrigation water and chemical fertilizer considering than conventional method of cultivation. Rice cultivation is more sustainable and profitable for the farmers in SRI under the red and laterite zone of West Bengal.


Performance of SRI under different N sources in sandy loam soils of Agniyar sub-basin, India
Author(s): Mohandas S., Saviour M. Naveen, Pandian B.J., Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, Volume 49, Issue 2 | Year 2015

A field experiment was conducted on rice at farmer’s fields to compare the performance of SRI with different N sources. The experiment was conducted in sandy loam soil during rabi 2013–14 with various N sources viz., Urea and Ammonium sulphate and the SRI was compared with various system of rice cultivation viz., conventional method and farmer's own method. The results emanated from the experiment showed that the N application through Ammonium sulphate at 100% recommended level under SRI, recorded the highest yield attributes of rice viz., number of tillers and productive tillers, number of grains per panicle, 1000 grain weight, total DMP, grain and straw yield. The yield was increased to the tune of 33.4%, 66.0% over conventional and farmers method respectively. Water productivity was higher under SRI (0.94) overconventional (0.37) and farmer'spractice (0.18). Besides, SRI resulted in 40.5%and 42.0% water saving over conventional and farmers practice respectively. In addition, SRI recorded an increased net return of 49.0% and 74.7% over conventional and farmer's practice respectively. Harvest index was found to be higher under SRI (39.0%), followed by conventional (35.0%) and farmer's practice (30.3%).


Effect of seedling age and spacing schedule on the productivity and quality traits of rice under system of rice intensification (SRI)
Author(s): K. Kanaka Durga, P. Sambasiva Rao and K. Raju, Journal of Cereals and Oilseeds, Academic Journals, Vol. 6(3), pp. 15-19 | April 2015

Studies on the effects of seedling age and spacing schedule on the productivity and quality traits of rice adopted under system of rice intensification (SRI) was taken up at Seed Research and Technology Centre, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during kharif, 2008 and 2009 using popular rice cultivar, Swarna (MTU 7029). 16 days seedlings planted at 20 × 20 cm, 12 days / 20 × 20 cm (56.2 q/ha) and 14 days / 20 × 20 cm (53.4 q/ha), 12 days / 25 × 25 cm (52.2 q/ha) and 12 days / 30 × 30 cm (51.2 q/ha) were found superior for grain yield and were significantly different from the rest of the treatments. Of all the five treatments, 12 days aged seedlings besides recording highest grain yield were also found superior for spikelet fertility and ear bearing tillers per hill. Further, 12 days old seedlings planted at 25 × 25 cm recorded 100% germination with longer seedlings and high seedling vigour Index I.


Mechanical weed control by cono weeder in SRI method of paddy cultivation
Author(s): S.S. Karhale, S.P. Lambe and P.S. Neharkar, International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Engineering, Vol No. 4, Special Issue (02) | February 2015

The study revealed that weeders and methods selected for the study has its own strengths and limitations. Conoweeder can be recommended in the early stages of weed growth as the better weeding efficiency, more turning of the soil and uprooting of weeds overrules the higher cost of operation. Conoweeder performed the task with comparatively higher field capacity, better performance index in the early stages of weed infestation. The field performance analyses have shown that Weeding efficiency as 72.2 % for Conoweeder with damage factor of 4.1% respectively. It was found that a male subject took an average of 80.8 h/ha respectively for weeding operation with conoweeders; whereas the female subject took 125 h/ha. The hand weeding was a superior weeding system for crop growth parameters than any other system employed in this study. The Conoweeding system also showed consistently greater results which were comparable to hand weeding. The performance analysis results demonstrated that weeding tools can produce large reductions in the weeding costs and significant reductions in labour time, whereas hand weeding reached the best efficiency in weed control. The combination of Conoweeding and chemical weeding is very effective as compared to other treatments.


Assessment of productivity, profitability and quality of rice (Oryza sativa) under System of Rice Intensification in eastern Uttar Pradesh
Author(s): Hardev Ram, J.P. Singh, J.S. Bohra, A.S. Yadav and J.M. Sutaliya, The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 85, No. 1 | Year 2015

A field experiment was conducted to find out optimum age of seedlings and plant density of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes under system of rice intensification (SRI) on sandy-clay-loam (Ustochrepts) soil at Agriculture Research Farm of Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University during kharif (rainy) seasons of 2008 and 2009. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with two genotypes and two spacing consign to main plots and four ages of seedlings were allocated as sub-plot treatments have replicated thrice. Transplanted of rice hybrid PHB 71 with 25 cm × 25 cm showed significantly higher growth, yield attributes, yield (12.6%), harvest index (8%), production efficiency (60.32 kg/ha/day), net monetary returns (Rupees 47 239) and benefit: cost ratio (1.56) than NDR 359. Quality parameters, viz. hulling, milling, head rice recovery and protein content were significantly higher in PHB 71. The age of seedlings significantly affected in growth, yield, quality parameters, net monetary returns and benefit: cost ratio. Transplanted of 10 days old seedlings increased 12.7, 4.4 and 17.5% more grain yield as compared to 8, 12 and 14 days old seedlings, respectively. Maximum mean monetary net returns of Rupees 49 227, benefit: cost ratio (1.67) and per day returns (414 Rupees/ha/day) were obtained with 10 days old seedlings. Quality parameters, viz. hulling, milling and head rice recovery were improved significantly with young seedlings of 10 days.


Performance of SRI under different N sources in sandy loam soils of Agniyar sub-basin, India
Author(s): Mohandas S., Saviour M. Naveen, Pandian B.J., Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, Volume 49, Issue 2 | Year 2015

A field experiment was conducted on rice at farmer’s fields to compare the performance of SRI with different N sources. The experiment was conducted in sandy loam soil during rabi 2013–14 with various N sources viz., Urea and Ammonium sulphate and the SRI was compared with various system of rice cultivation viz., conventional method and farmer's own method. The results emanated from the experiment showed that the N application through Ammonium sulphate at 100% recommended level under SRI, recorded the highest yield attributes of rice viz., number of tillers and productive tillers, number of grains per panicle, 1000 grain weight, total DMP, grain and straw yield. The yield was increased to the tune of 33.4%, 66.0% over conventional and farmers method respectively. Water productivity was higher under SRI (0.94) overconventional (0.37) and farmer'spractice (0.18). Besides, SRI resulted in 40.5%and 42.0% water saving over conventional and farmers practice respectively. In addition, SRI recorded an increased net return of 49.0% and 74.7% over conventional and farmer's practice respectively. Harvest index was found to be higher under SRI (39.0%), followed by conventional (35.0%) and farmer's practice (30.3%).


Socio-economic impact of system of rice intensification (SRI) and traditional rice cultivation in Villupuram district of Tamil Nadu : experiences from TN-IAMWARM Project
Author(s): V.K. Ravichandran and K.C. Prakash, International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 11 Issue 1 | January 2015

The study has assessed the socio-economic impact of rice intensification. The results of the study revealed that, variables namely age, education, farming experience, SRI experience, information seeking behaviour, training attended, extension orientation, economic motivation, risk orientation, market perception, innovativeness and attitude were found to be positively significant at 1 per cent level of probability with their extent of adoption of SRI technology. The most important constraint in SRI cultivation has been identified as usage of cono-weeder (58.21 %) followed by nursery management (56.61 %). The adoption of SRI technique has helped increase the rice production without increasing the area under its cultivation and has proved to serve as an alternative method for rice cultivation.


Evaluation of system of rice intensification (SRl) in farmers fields of Anantapuram district of Andhra Pradesh
Author(s): C. Radha Kumari, P. Lakshmi Reddy and M. John Sudheer, International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Research Journal, Volume 11, Issue 1 | January 2015

On-farm demonstrations were conducted to popularize the SRI method of paddy cultivation among the farmers under supervision of DAATT Centre (Extension unit of Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh), Anantapuram for three years during Kharif, 2007-08 to 2009-10. The comparison was made between SRI method of paddy cultivation and farmers practice with an objective to obtain higher productivity, to reduce the cost of production of paddy and subsequently improve the returns from unit in farmers’ fields. The results revealed that during three years of demonstration more number of tillers and panicles m-2 were recorded in SRI compared to farmers practice. SRI recorded higher grain yields compared to farmers practice which was 20.3 per cent higher over farmers practice. Higher gross returns, net returns and benefit cost ratio were also associated with SRI than conventional method of rice cultivation. The cost of cultivation was comparatively lesser in SRI which resulted in gaining an additional net profit of Rs. 15697 ha-1 as compared to farmers practice of rice cultivation. In SRI method grain and straw yields were enhanced by 20.3 and 21.0 per cent, respectively over farmers practice.


Year 2014

Extent of adoption of practices under system of rice intensification in Odisha
Author(s): Ray Plabita and Raj RK, College of Agriculture, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, ORYZA - An International Journal on Rice, Volume 51, Issue 1 | December 24, 2014

System of rice intensification (SRI) has been popularized in all the rice growing areas across the World. Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Odisha has made intensive effort for popularization of SRI. But the area expansions were not significantly increased. A study was made with 115 SRI growers covering 81 villages and 42 books in 23 districts of Odisha. It was observed that the farmers have good perception about advantages of rice in comparism to their conventional practice and adopting SRI since last five years. There was deficiencies in adoption of suitable variety, optimum seed rate, selecting quality seeds with salt solution, preparing channels in 2 mts. distance in the main field, transplanting 8–12 days old seedling, putting seedlings in a thin metal sheet for transplanting, transplanting immediately after uprooting, applying recommended quantity of manures, not practicing green manuring/brown manuring, maintaining water at soil saturation, alternate drying and welting, light irrigation during hair line cracks, keeping 2–3 cms,. standing water after flowering, four weeding at 10 days interval and uprooting weeds manually near to the plant. Since, social participation, cosmopoliteness and holding size of the respondents positively and significantly influence adoption, it is therefore suggested that the farmers need to be further exposed through training, demonstration etc. so that they will convince and realize the importance and adopt all these practices under SRI and harvest the desired yield.


Promotion of SRI - Millet: Reopening a Closed Chapter
Author(s): Kuntal Mukherjee, Siddharth Gahoi and Biswanath Sinha, International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research, Volume 3, Issue 3 | November 2014

Millets are rich in nutrient content, they requires very little water for their production as compared to other commodity crops currently promoted via various subsidy and privileges. Millets are grown in a wide range of ecological condition require nil or minute irrigation. Millets are drought resistant crop and it can be cultivated round the year. Millets do not require any synthetic fertilizers, mostly household fertilizer is being used. Grown via traditional methods millets act as a secondary crop but it us superior in nutrient content form other food grains such as rice, wheat etc. Pearl millet has high Iron content of 16.9mg/100g as compared to 0.7 mg/100g of rice and 5.3mg/100g of wheat. Similarly millets like Proso has high content of Protein (12.5g/100g), Finger millet has high content of Calcium (344mg/100g), and Foxtail millet has high content of fiber (8g/100g). Pearl millet due to its high content of Iron and Zinc recommended for treatment of diseases like celiac, constipation and other Non-communicable diseases. In advance practices like SRI, millets also show a significant increase of yield near about double or more than that. The research depicts that near about more than double cost savings data found in the millets cultivation under SRI technique with compare of traditional cultivation practices of millets. In tribal heritage the expectation time of a woman has a high necessity of consume millets. The early mentioned high quantity of iron is the main cause of it.


Impact of integrated nutrient management on performance of rice under system of rice intensification (SRI)
Author(s): L. Tzudir and R.K. Ghosh, Journal of Crop and Weed, Volume 10, No. 2, Page 331 - 333 | November 2014

Field experiment was conducted during season 2008-09 on up-medium land situation at ‘C’ Block (Incheck) Farm, Kalyani, BCKV to study the effect of combination of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on rice production using SRI technology. The experimental results revealed that the best result was obtained with application of 75% N (Enrich Adhar) + 25% N (Urea) + PK and consequently an increase in grain yield by 27.63%, 28.98% and 20.94% was observed over full NPK (60:30:30), 75% N (urea) + PK and farmers’ practice treated plots respectively. The corresponding increases in straw yields were 23.38 24.4 and 17.73% respectively. Organic sources of plant nutrient also showed positive effect on other yield attributes such as panicle length, tiller number and filled grains per panicle. The effect of different treatments on availability of soil nutrients also showed that application of integrated plant nutrients showed better results and application of 75% N (Enrich Adhar) + 25% N (urea) + PK resulted in highest nitrogen percentage, available phosphorus and potassium respectively, while the lowest was from sole application of NPK through inorganic nutrient sources.


SRI - A methodology for substantially raising rice productivity by using farmers' improve thinking and practice with farmers' available resources
Author(s): R.K. Ghosh, S. Setharagai and D. Shamurailatpam, Journal of Crop and Weed, Volume 10, No. 2, Page 4 - 9| November 2014

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) shows promise for substantially raising rice productivity by using farmers’ improve thinking and practice with resources what farmers already have, besides offering increase soil & plant health, saving resources & lowering GHG emission. The on station field experiments (weed, nutrient & water management) were conducted at the Viswavidyalaya farm, Mohanpur during summer 2012 - 2014 in transplanted puddled paddy cv. IET 4786 following SRI methodology. In nutrient management the experiment was conducted with RBD replicated four times and with five treatments viz. N -100% NPK through inorganic fertilizers; N 25% organic N + 75% inorganic N + 100% PK through inorganic fertilizers; N - 1 2- 3 50% organic N + 50% inorganic N + 100% PK through inorganic fertilizers; N -75% organic N + 25% inorganic N + 100% PK 4 through inorganic fertilizers and N - 100 % N through organic + 100% PK through inorganic fertilizers. The field experiment on 5 water management was conducted with four treatments (2-3 cm water submergence in active tillering, panicle initiation and flowering only and rest period irrigation at hair crack stage (2-3 cm WS at AT, PI and F + HC), irrigation at hair crack stage (HC), 2-3 cm water submergence (2-3 cm WS) and Farmers’ practice with 3-5 cm water submergence (FP) following RBD replicated six times. There were six treatments on weed management [Weedy check (WC); two mechanical weeding at 15 and 40 DAT (2 MW); three mechanical weeding at 15,25 and 40 DAT (3 MW); hand weeding at 25 DAT + 2 ME (HW + MW); chemical Pretilachlor 50 EC @ 500 g ha-1 at 1 DAT + 2 MW (CC+ MW) and aqueous extracts of Pathenium, Calotropis and Tectona leaves @ 5 ml litre of water-1 + surfactant Tween 20 at 1 DAT + 2 MW (BC + MW)] and the experiment was laid out in RBD replicated four times. The results revealed that 75 % N as organic + 100% PK through inorganic fertilizers showed better paddy productivity in addition to more soil population of soil biota and nutrient availability. The most interesting result was that keeping PK as constant in 100 % N through organic sources, the insect and pathogenic pest’s infestation was reduced to the tune of 31.13 % fb 75 % N as organic (22.2 %), 50 % N as organic (15.5 %) and 25 % N as organic (4.46%) as compared to 100 % N through inorganic treatment. In water management experiment the results revealed that the total water used in this experiment was 6.88, 4.72, 8.06 and 10.23 million lit ha-1 against treatments 2-3 cm WS at AT, PI and F + HC, HC, 2-3 cm WS and FP, respectively. The corresponding figures for water saving in respect to FP were 32.78, 53.90 and 21.23 %. The grain yield data also revealed that 3750.00, 3347.22, 3027.78, and 3138.89 kg ha-1 were obtained against the treatments 2-3 cm WS at AT, PI and F +HC, HC, 2-3 cm WS and FP, respectively. Therefore, the water required for kg yield of rice were 1833.84, 1409.20, 2661.60 and 3259.40 litre, respectively. With a common 20.80 % O in all plots at 25 DAT in FP the average GHG CO , CO, N O and Methane emissions were 2 2 2 to the tune of 398 ppm, 0.97%, 17 and 40 kg ha-1 , respectively and the corresponding figures at 55 DAT were 399 ppm, 0.99%, 21 and 46 kg ha-1 but in SRI treatment 2-3 cm WS at AT, PI and F + HC these data were 394 ppm, 0.92%, and 16 and 25 kg ha-1 at 25 DAT while at 55 DAT the corresponding figures are 395ppm, 0.95%, 25 and 32 kg ha-1. In weed management experiment the BC + MW could be the best alternative of both HW + MW and CC + MW treatments by increasing the NPV (considering biological yield) 3.14 and 3.77 %, respectively and over the WC by 54.1 %. The experimental results were also verified at on farm locations of nine districts of West Bengal (Nadia, Howrah, Hooghly, Burdwan, Birbhum, Purba and Paschim Medinipur, and North and South 24 parganas) during summer 2013 and 2014. An average of 8.0 - 15.5% more paddy grain yield was also observed over the traditional transplanted rice (TTR) . In Conclusion more organic nutrient application with BC + MW at 15 and 40 DAT weed management and 2-3 cm WS at AT, PI and F + HC water management were the best for increasing paddy productivity in SRI system at this Gangetic plains of India.


On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps
Author(s): Ezra Berkhout, Dominic Glover and Arie Kuyvenhoven, Science Direct / October 2014

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix and allocation of inputs, in particular of water, seeds, fertiliser and labour. However, SRI impact studies have generally failed to distinguish between technological change – a more productive use of inputs, evidenced by a change in total factor productivity – increases in input use, or selection effects and their respective effects on yields. The studies reviewed point not only to modest increases in rice yields associated with SRI adoption, but also to concurrent increases in labour and fertiliser use. Often SRI is selectively practised on more fertile plots. As a result, no firm evidence on changes in total factor productivity can be discerned, while partial productivities of land and labour show mixed results. Though yields tend to be higher under SRI management, risk also seems to increase, which initially favours adoption by better-endowed farmers and on better soils. Evidence on SRI impact is further complicated by the large diversity of SRI practices associated with different biophysical, socio-economic and institutional circumstances. We conclude by identifying knowledge gaps surrounding the SRI phenomenon, encompassing agro-technical aspects, socio-economic issues and (dis)adoption behaviour.


Effect of Extended Water Stress on Growth, Tiller Mortality and Nutrient Recovery Under System of Rice Intensification
Author(s): K.K. Hazra and Subhash Chandra, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences | September 7, 2014

System of rice intensification was initially introduced to increase rice productivity in India, but is recently popularized as promising water saving practice. Sustaining rice productivity with minimal use of water is the need of the day. In this background, an experiment was designed to assess the effect of variable degrees of water stress namely no-stress, mild-stress and prolonged-stress imposed throughout the crop growth by scheduling irrigation at 1, 3 and 5 days, respectively after disappearance of ponded water under system of rice intensification with two different planting geometry and two contrasting varieties. Results clearly demonstrated that mild and prolonged stress during late vegetative stage (45–75 days after transplanting) greatly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced (30.3–41.5 %) crop growth rate while, any level of stress during reproductive phase reduced (8.8–10.8 %) the rate of crop growth. Despite of higher tiller production under stress condition, large number of tillers failed to convert in ear-bearing tillers indicating higher tiller mortality under stress environment. Meanwhile, tiller density was not confirmed as a yield determinant while, the rice yield had higher correlation with grain weight panicle−1 (r = 0.743*), filled grain percentage (r = 0.806*), test weight (r = 0.683*) and nutrient uptake. With increase in stress intensity, apparent recovery of nutrients significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced, and the decline rate was in the order of potassium > phosphorus > nitrogen. Rice crop imposed mild-stress maintained at par yield (P > 0.05) with no stress, however prolonged-stress resulted in significant yield loss. Thus, mild-stress throughout the crop growth can reduce the water requirement and would be an effective water management strategy under water limited conditions.


Fluorescent pseudomonads contribute to the enhanced growth and yield of rice cultivated under system of rice intensification (SRI)
Author(s): Suresh A., Ramesh M., Reddy S. Ram, Indian Journal of Agricultural Research | August 2, 2014

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is an innovative method of rice (Oryza sativa) cultivation that combines many farm practices. Though the benefits of SRI are obvious, the underlying principles in enhanced yields are not yet scientifically analyzed. Two important components of SRI are keeping the rice field moist without flooding and frequent weeding out practices that enhance the aerobic conditions which in turn improve soil biological activity including enhanced root growth and activity of aerobic soil organisms. We have taken up the present investigations, with the premise that soil microorganisms especially fluorescent pseudomonads (FLPs), whose role in enhancement of plant growth is unequivocal, may contribute to the enhanced growth and yield of rice cultivated under SRI. The results of present investigations revealed that rice cultivated under SRI harboured more the population of FLPs in rhizosphere than non-rhizosphere soil. Screening of rhizospheric FLPs isolates has revealed that many of the isolates possessed the ability of producing growth promoting substances like IAA, GA, siderophores, ‘p'solubilization. Some selected strains have also shown resistance towards heavy metals, salts and pH. They have also exhibited significant antifungal activity and enhanced the seed germination and efficient root colonization. Further, artificial inoculations have also clearly shown to enhance the growth in terms of height, dry weight of shoot and root. Thus, the results substantiate the role of FLPs for the enhanced growth and yield of rice cultivated under SRI.


Energetics of Greengram (Vigna radiata L.) Production as affected by Residual Effect of Rice Establishment Methods and Nutrient Management Practices in Rice - Greengram Cropping System
Author(s): Tushar Ranjan Mohanty, Pravat Kumar Roul and Swapan Kumar Maity, IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS) | July 2014

Field experiments were conducted. to study the residual effect of three rice establishment methods (SRI, drum seeding and conventional transplanting) and three nutrient management practices [RDF (80:40:40 N: P2O5: K2O kg ha-1), 50% R.D.F. + 50% R.D.F. through organic sources (based on nitrogen requirement) i.e. INM and 100% RDF through organic management (OM)] and direct effect of three nutrient management practices viz. RDF (20:40:40 N: P2O5: K2O kg ha-1), 50% RDF + Biofertlizer (BF) and no fertilizer on energetics of greengram in a rice-greengram cropping system during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010–11. The design was split plot in kharif and split-split plot in rabi with treatments replicated thrice. Methods of rice establishment did not influence the yield and energetics of subsequent greengram. Residual effect of sole organic nutrient management being at par with integrated nutrient management came out to be the best in terms of yield and energy indices like energy output, energy productivity and energy ratio. 50% RDF + BF application to greengram recorded the highest seed yield (930 kg ha-1). This treatment also recorded the highest energy output (55.7 MJ x 103), energy productivity (247.3 Kg/MJ x 103) and energy ratio(14.81).


Seasonal Incidence of Rice Yellow Stem Borer (Scirpophaga Incertulas Wlk.) in relation to Conventional and SRI methods of Planting and its Correlation with Weather Parameters
Author(s): A.M. Kakde and K.G. Patel, IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS), Volume 7, Issue 6 Ver. II | June 2014

An experiment on the influence of different planting methods on succession of rice yellow stem borer was carried out in rice field. This experiment was carried out with conventional (Transplanting) and SRI method of paddy cultivation. Under conventional method, yellow stem borer infestation appeared peak during first week of September (5.58% DH) and 1st week of October (5.79% WEH). In SRI method, the peak incidence was observed during first week of September (4.19% DH) and at last week of September (4.93% WEH). The results of both methods indicated that the weather parameters had less influence on the activity yellow stem borer damage.


Effect of Organic Sources and Nitrogen Levels on Growth and Yield of Kharif Rice (Orya SAtiva L.) under SRI technique
Author(s): Mamta Meena, M.V. Patel, Tania Das and H.P. Verma, Agriculture For Sustainable Development | June 2014

The field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Farm, B.A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat during the kharif season of the year 2009. The results revealed that initial and at harvest plant population was not influenced by organic manures. However, growth attributes such as plant height, total number of tillers/hill, total number of productive tillers/hill, number of panicles/hill, dry matter accumulation and test weight showed significant improvement due to impact of different organic manures at various growth stages. Significantly higher grain (3550 kg/ha) and straw yield (9362 kg/ha) were recorded with application of 100% RDN..


Effect of seedlings age and plant spacing on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and economics of rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes under system of rice intensification
Author(s): Ram Hardev, Singh J.P., Bohra J.S., Singh Rajiv K., Sutaliya J.M., Indian Journal of Agronomy | June 24, 2014

A field experiment was conducted during the rainy (kharif) season of 2008 and 2009 at Varanasi, to evaluate the effect of seedlings age and plant spacing on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and economics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under system of rice intensification (SRI). Sixteen treatments were laid out in a split-plot design, keeping combinations of 2 genotypes (‘PHB 71’ and ‘NDR 359’) and 2 spacings (25 cm × 25 cm and 30 cm × 30 cm) in mainplots and 4 seedlings age (8, 10, 12 and 14 days old) in sub-plots with 3 replications. The rice hybrid ‘PHB 71’ showed significantly higher growth, yield attributes and 12.6% higher yield than ‘NDR 359’. This hybrid also gave the highest net monetary returns ( 46,700/ha) and benefit: cost ratio (1.56). Wider spacing i.e. 30 cm × 30 cm gave significantly more tillers/hill (22.7), panicles/hill (21.9) and grains/panicle (168.1) than other spacing. However, plant height (116 cm), leaf-area index (5.0), net monetary returns and yield were significantly higher in closer spacing of 25 cm × 25 cm. The closer spacing resulted in around 12.30% higher grain yield over wider spacing. Amongst the ages of seedlings, 10 days old seedlings resulted in significantly higher growth, yield attributes, net monetary returns and yield than 8 and 14 days old seedlings but remained at par with 12 days old seedlings. The 10 days old seedlings gave 12.8 and 17.6% more grain yield than 8 and 14 days old seedlings, respectively.


Quality Seed: An Innovative Sorting Technique to Sustainable, Uniform and Effective Seedling Establishment in Nursery for System of Rice Intensification
Author(s): Zubairu Usman Bashar, Aimrun Wayayok, Amin M. S. M., Razif M. Mahadi, Journal of Agricultural Science, Canadian Center of Science and Education, Vol. 6, No. 7 | June 15, 2014

One of the major problems of adapting the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) techniques is knowledge shortfall on the technical skills for processing quality seeds to achieve uniform seedling establishment in the nursery and quick seedling recovery in the puddled field. Therefore, this study aimed to create suitably seed sorting technique leading to vigorous and quality seedlings to improve potentiality of SRI nursery and reduce seedlings transplanting shock. It involved sorting of MR219 rice seeds the most popular grown variety in Malaysia in NaCl solutions of 0 g/L(water alone), 40 g/L, 60 g/L, 80 g/L, 100 g/L and 120 g/L, respectively. The experiment revealed that 100% germination after ten days was obtained from the sunken MR219 seeds collected in 80 g/L of NaCl solution. These values reported a decrease in germination (85%) with increasing NaCl concentration (120 g/L), with least germination vigor of 42% in water alone (0 g/L) 3 days. The percentage of sprouting proved to be high from the sunken seeds obtained in 80 g/L with 100% sprouting success rate. A decrease in percentage (70%) has been revealed with increasing NaCl concentration from the seeds obtained in 120 g/L and also when it was reduced to 40 g/L which reported 65% of the sprouting rate. Therefore, this technical information serves as benchmark to practicing farmers that high concentration in NaCl not only reduces the percentage of viable seeds but also increases seedling preparation cost as well as the entire production cost.


An economic evaluation of System of Rice Intensification in Odisha
Author(s): Pandit Arun, MIshra Jyoti Ranjan and Sadangi BN, CRRI, Cuttack, Odisha, Indian Journals | June 12, 2014

Seventy five rice farm families of Odisha practising system of rice intensification (SRI) were personally interviewed during 2011. Data envelopment analysis (DEA), a nonparametric technique was employed for technical efficiency estimation using computer software DEAP ver. 2.1. The investigation shows that farmers allocated a little more than 25% of the total rice area to SRI. Pooja was the most preferred variety both in the SRI and conventional system of cultivation. The study further indicated that the SRI package was not being followed in its entirety. However, even with partial adoption of SRI practices the average grain and straw yield on SRI plots was 25 and 13% higher than the conventional plots. Farmers who followed the SRI packages in a better manner produced higher output, indicating that possibilities exist for many farmers to increase average output further. Evidence from the study suggests that though the cost of cultivation was 3.2% higher, the cost of production was almost 19% lower in SRI due to higher grain yield. Gross and net returns were higher in SRI by more than 30% and 69% respectively. Technical efficiency (TE) analysis indicated that the average TE was about 88% in SRI and 75% in conventional. Further, farmers had positive perception about the SRI.


A study on Profile of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Paddy growers in Tirunelveli district of Tamilnadu
Author(s): C. Thatchinamoorthy and Rexlin Selvin, International Journal of Current Research | April 2014

The study was conducted during 2013 in Vasudevanallur block of Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu state to assess the profile characteristics of farmers growing SRI paddy. The study was conducted in Vasudevanallur block of Tirunelveli district in Tamil Nadu. A total of 120 respondents were selected, and interviewed using a well structured, pretested interview schedule. In addition to percentage analysis, cumulative frequency, correlation co-efficient and multiple regressions were the statistical tools employed. Majority of the respondents belonged to the old age category and were literates i.e., primary to secondary level of education. Majority of the respondents had agriculture as their secondary occupation and little more than half of the respondents belonged to low level of annual income group. Majority of the respondents had medium level of farming experience (25 years). Majority of the respondents had less than 2.5 acres of area under SRI cultivation. System of Rice Intensification farmers possessed medium level of social participation, scientific orientation, risk orientation, credit orientation, innovativeness, extension agency contact and economic motivation.


Participatory evaluation of mechanical weeders in lowland rice production systems in Benin
Author(s): Sylvestre Gongotchame, Ibnou Dienga, Kokou Ahouantona, Jean-Martial Johnsona, Amakoe Delali Alognona, Atsuko Tanakaa, Sanoussi Attab, Kazuki Saitoa, Crop Protection, Elsevier | July 2014

Weeds are a major constraint to rice (Oryza sativa) production in sub-Saharan Africa. Use of mechanical hand weeders could reduce the labor required for weeding. This paper uses a participatory approach to examine the suitability of six mechanical weeders in Benin. A total of 157 farmers (93 male, 64 female) in 14 villages tested the mechanical weeders, ranked them in order of preference, and compared them with their own weed management practices. The ring hoe had the highest rank, followed by the straight-spike weeder; 97% of the farmers preferred the ring hoe to their own weed management practices, by hand or using traditional hoe, because of its easy operation and high efficiency. The ring hoe tended to be preferred especially in the fields with non-ponded water and relatively higher weed pressure. The straight-spike weeder tended to be preferred to ring hoe in the fields where weed pressure is less, whereas in ponded conditions, farmers liked these two weeders in equal proportion. The preference of weeders was not related to gender, rice field size, or years of experience of rice cultivation. Among 23 farmers who used herbicides, 17 farmers preferred herbicides to the ring hoe and have rice field of >0.5 ha. Mechanical weeders can offer an effective approach for weed management, especially for small-scale rice farmers, and different types of mechanical weeders should be introduced to farmers based on water regimes and weed pressure level.


Irrigation management for improving productivity nutrient uptake and water-use efficiency in system of rice intensification: a review
Author(s): Anchal Dass, Shiva Dhar, Annals of Agricultural Research, Vol 35, No.2 | March 2014

System of rice intensification (SRI) technique is a relatively recent innovation in the rice cultivation. It was developed to enable resource constrained farmers to raise rice production and income without relying on purchased external inputs, which they cannot afford. Recently, this system of rice growing has drawn much attention for its apparent success in increasing productivity of rice fields. With SRI methods, rice yields exceeding 15 t ha-1 have been reported. This method has now spread to more than 60 countries of the world and more than 5 million farmers are using one or the other recommended practice of SRI. Researches with SRI world-over have revealed that high yields from the SRI method are the consequence of improvement in plant environment rather than enhancement of physiological potential of the plant itself. Use of young seedlings, additions of organic manures, wider spacing, and greater aeration from intermittent irrigation have been reported to mediate high yields under SRI. Irrigation at 2-5 days after disappearance of ponded water (DADPW) have been shown to save irrigation water as high as 50% with higher or marginally low yields and higher B:C ratio compared to conventional flooding. Water-use efficiency (WUE) in conventional transplanted rice is only 20-30%. However, SRI could improve WUE by 68-94% and irrigation WUE by 100-130% over traditional flooding. In general, concentration and uptake of N, P, Zn and Cu have been higher under alternate wetting and drying condition while concentration and uptake of K, Fe and Mn have been found to be higher with continuous flooding.


Effect of different crop establishment methods on rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and yield - A review
Author(s): Parameswari Y.S., Srinivas A, Prakash T. Ram, Narendar G., Agricultural Reviews, Indian Journals | March 1, 2014

Rice is grown mostly through transplanting in India, in spite of the fact that transplanting is cumbersome practice and requires more labour. The inadequacy of irrigation water and scarce labour coupled with higher wages during the peak period of farm operations, invariably lead to delay in transplanting. To overcome this problem, farmers are gradually switching over to direct seeding under puddle condition. Wet seeding (Sowing pre-germinated seed on to puddle soil) reduces substantially the amount of labour needed for growing of rice crop. The wet seeding also helps to harvest the crop by 8–10 days earlier than transplanting. It eliminates the use of seedlings and operations such as nursery preparation care of seedlings, pulling, bundling, transporting and transplanting. The demand for more irrigation water and seed rate with transplanting and direct sowing methods signifies the importance of the other methods of rice crop establishment such as system of rice intensification (SRI) to save water. With proper water and weed management under SRI and wet sowing we can get similar yields as that of transplanted rice. An attempt has been made in this paper to review the effect of establishment methods on rice crop yield.


The Challenges and Potentials of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Addressing Food Security and Developing Resilience to Climate Change
Author(s): Rajeev Ranjan and Vivek Prasad, The Sustainability Collection | February 27, 2014

Climate change will have far reaching impacts on agricultural systems that increasingly experience droughts and floods, especially in the developing world. There is growing evidence that poor and vulnerable communities are the most affected by the changes due to their limited adaptive capacity and dependency on climate sensitive rain-fed agricultural systems. India accounts for a large number of rural communities primarily dependent on rain-fed ecosystems, with rice as a predominant crop. Climate change studies on India project possible reductions in monsoon rainfall. This is clearly evident in the case of Jharkhand; the state has witnessed consecutive drought years in 2009 and 2010. Jharkhand is predominantly a tribal state in India. Agriculture in the state is predominantly rain-fed; presenting high agro-climatic constraints for the 80% of rural population that is mainly dependent on mono-cropped agricultural practices. The agricultural backwardness of the region is attributed to the low level of irrigation facilities and exacerbated by the local effects of global climate change. In recent years the state has frequently witnessed delayed monsoons, erratic rainfall, prolonged dry spells, and increases in temperature. This has exposed the farmers of Jharkhand to numerous socio-economic problems. Monsoon crop (Kharif) is considered an important agriculture season with a high number of farmers dependant on this season to meet the year round food requirements. Erratic rainfall mostly impacts Kharif crops (mainly paddy) and thus affects the socio-economic condition of farmers. In this growing uncertainty the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has been gaining popularity. Using a case study, the paper explores the challenges and potentials of SRI in addressing food security, developing resilience and increasing adaptive capacity of farmers to climate change in Jharkhand.


The system of crop intensification: reports from the field on improving agricultural production, food security, and resilience to climate change for multiple crops
Author(s): Binju Abraham, Hailu Araya, Tareke Berhe, Sue Edwards, Biksham Gujja, Ram Bahadur Khadka, Yang S Koma, Debashish Sen, Asif Sharif, Erika Styger, Norman Uphoff, Anil Verma, Agriculture and Food Security, Springer Link | February 2014

In the past half dozen years, farmers and professionals working with them in several Asian and African countries have begun adapting and extrapolating what they have learned from and about the system of rice intensification (SRI) to a range of other crops - finger millet, wheat, sugarcane, tef, oilseeds such as mustard, legumes such as soya and kidney beans, and various vegetables - in what is being called the system of crop intensification (SCI). As with rice, the principles of early and healthy plant establishment, reducing competition between plants, increased soil organic matter, active soil aeration, and the careful application of water are proving able to raise the productivity and profitability of differently-managed crops. Recent reports from the World Bank in India and the Agricultural Transformation Agency in Ethiopia show such changes in crop management improving food security and being scaled up with hundreds of thousands of farmers. This review article reports on the productivity and other impacts being observed for many different crops in half a dozen countries for increasing food crop yields with lower cost and input requirements as well as more resilience to adverse effects of climate change. It also reports on mechanization innovations that reduce labor requirements for these methods.


Integrated System of Crop Intensification of Vegetables with Relation to Climate Change in Pathar Area of Sangamner
Author(s): S.S. Raskar, A.G. Wani, A.L. Zhagade and P.A. Gagare (Watershed Organization Trust - WOTR, Pune, Maharashtra), International Journal of Social Relevance and Concern, Volume 2, Issue 2 | February 2014

Intensification of vegetable cultivation are important for with stand adverse climatic effect. Intensification of vegetables by use of high-yielding crop varieties, fertilization, irrigation, and bio-pesticides has contributed substantially to the tremendous increases in vegetable production. Land conversion and intensification, however, also alter the biotic interactions and patterns of resource availability in ecosystems and can have serious local, regional, and climate change effect. The use of integrated crop management strategies can increase the sustainability of agricultural production while reducing chemical use of agriculture.


Impact of climate change scenario on rice production in two planting methods: a simulation study
Author(s): A. Sumathi, S. Mohandass and S. Ramasamy, SpringerLink | February 2014

In the present study, attempts have been made to simulate the effect of climate change on rice growth and yield, under both control and water-stressed conditions. Between the two planting methods, the system of rice intensification (SRI) practice had an advantage for the elevated CO2 conditions, with an additional yield of 1,325 kg ha−1; while it was only 391 kg ha−1 under traditional system of planting rice (TPR). Similarly, the yield decline due to temperature increment was −2.0, −2.4, −6.2 and −12.8 % under SRI practice as compared to that of −4.0, −9.9, −11.3 and −31.7 % in the TPR system for +1, +2, +3 and +4 °C temperature rise, respectively. Thus, doubling of atmospheric CO2 level will compensate for the detrimental effect of increased temperature up to 2 °C in the SRI method of rice cultivation as compared to TPR system of planting. Thus, SRI practice is the most suitable method of rice cultivation under both elevated CO2 and temperature level. Simulation analysis of the present data using the dynamic model, ORYZA2000, indicated that under future adverse climatic conditions, the grain yield showed little variation (+1.83 %) with doubled CO2 at +2 °C temperature rise especially with the water stress situations. However, this could be further raised (+17.10 %) with the supplementation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph bacterium (PPFM) bio-fertilizer in the given scenario. Thus, temperature-induced yield alterations especially under water-stressed environment could be favorably mitigated with the CO2 fertilization along with the supplementation of PPFM bio-fertilizer.


Low Economic Efficiency of Irrigation Water Resource in Krishna Western Delta of Andhra Pradesh Demanding Water Management Interventions
Author(s): Dr. A. Siva Sankar, Dr. B. Ravindra Reddy and N. Nirmal Ravi Kumar, Journal of International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary | February 2014

The story of food security in the 21st century in India is likely to be closely linked to the story of water security. Today, the water resource is under severe threat. The past experiences in India indicated inappropriate management of irrigation has led to severe problems. Considering the importance of irrigation water resource efficiency, Krishna Western Delta (KWD) of Andhra Pradesh was purposively selected for this in depth study, as the farming community in this area are severely affected due to severe soil salinity and water logging problems and hence, adoption of different water saving crop production technologies deserve special mention. It is quite disappointing that, canals, tube wells and filter points and other wells could not contribute much to the irrigated area in KWD. Due to fewer contributions from these sources, the net area irrigated also showed declining growth at a rate of –3.98 per cent. Chilly is the most profitable crop cultivated in KWD. Regarding paddy, it was highest for System of Rice Intensification (SRI) technology (1.16) than semi-dry and transplanted technologies. The reduction in irrigation cost in SRI and semi-dry paddy production technologies is significant, as indicated by the decline to a tune of 45 and 55 percents respectively over transplanted technology. This clearly indicates that, by less water usage, paddy returns can be boosted by adopting SRI and semi-dry production technologies. Both the system-level and field-level interventions should be addressed to solve the issues / problems of water management. The environment in the State of Andhra Pradesh in general and in KWD in particular, with reference to the execution of water management aspects is congenial for planning various technological interventions. The enabling environment, institutional roles and functions and management instruments are posing favourable picture for executing the water management interventions in KWD. This facilitates the farming community to harvest good crop per unit of water resource used in the production programme.


Effect of Different Nutrient Management Options on Rice under System Method of Cultivation - A review
Author(s): P. Sri Rajitha and K.I. Reddy | International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences | January - March 2014

Rice (Oryza sativa (L.)) is one of the most important stable food crops in the world. In Asia, more than two billion people are getting 60-70 per cent of their energy requirement from rice and its derived products. In India, rice occupies an area of 44 million hectare with an average production of 90 million tonnes with productivity of 2.0 tonnes per hectare. Demand for rice is growing every year and it is estimated that in 2010 and 2025 AD the requirement would be 100 and 140 million tonnes respectively. To sustain present food self-sufficiency and to meet future food requirements, India has to increase its rice productivity by 3 per cent per annum [21]. Rice cultivation requires large quantity of water and for producing one kg rice, about 3000 - 5000 litres of water depending on the different rice cultivation methods such as transplanted rice, direct sown rice (wet seeded), alternate wetting and drying method (AWD), system of rice intensification (SRI) and aerobic rice. Owing to increasing water scarcity, a shifting trend towards less water demanding crops against rice is noticed in most part of the India and this warrants alternate methods of rice cultivation that aims at higher water and crop productivity. There are evidences that cultivation of rice through system of rice intensification (SRI) can increase rice yields by two to three fold compared to current yield levels.


A study on impact of SRI on the pattern of Irrigation Water Consumption under different types of irrigation in Pudukkottai district of Tamilnadu, India
Author(s): R. Rajakumar, Research Scholar, Department of Economics, Bharathidasan University, Kajamalai Campus, Thiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India, E-Journal of Life Sciences (EILS) | January 23, 2014

This paper on System of Rice Intensification (SRI) under different settings and the water use pattern has covered two objectives; one whether the different settings of SRI have any positive impact on the water use pattern as well as quantity of irrigation water consumption and two, the different methods of SRI have any positive influence on water usage. This study is based on the detailed survey conducted at Pudukkottai district in Tamil Nadu during the agricultural year 2009-2010 with a sample size of 200 farmers. The data analysis proved that the rate of water saving is highest in BIA (Bore well irrigated Area) which account for about 50 percent on an average. The number of irrigations used per acre during the cultivation period for SRI paddy is only 10. Where as the same was found to be about 16 for paddy under conventional method. The reduction of water use in terms of hours is 47 percent in SRI paddy cultivating households when compared to the conventional paddy cultivating counterpart. A substantial amount of water (45.3 percent) has seen saved in SRI farmers the number of irrigation water per acre applied by households cultivating SRI paddy seems to have been 37% lower than that of households practicing conventional method of paddy cultivation.


Productivity and socio-economic impact of system of rice intensification and integrated crop management over conventional methods of rice establishment in eastern Himalayas, India
Author(s): Mokidul Islam, L. K. Nath, D. P. Patel, Anup Das, G. C. Munda, Tanmay Samajdar, S. V. Ngachan, Springer Link, Paddy and Water Environment | January 2014

To evaluate the performance of new rice establishment methods viz., system of rice intensification (SRI) and integrated crop management (ICM), a field study was conducted during 2008–11 in South Garo Hills, Meghalaya, foot hills of Eastern Himalayas, India. Field demonstrations were undertaken during wet seasons of 2008–11 and socio-economic information in the context of farmer’s realities were obtained during 2010–11 using a well structured questionnaire administered to 134 farmers. The results indicated that the average higher productivity of rice under SRI and ICM demonstration was 209.9 and 185.4 %, respectively, over conventional rice culture (CRC). The SRI and ICM methods of rice cultivation could save seeds (97.56 and 60.98 %), saving water (78.05 and 63.66 %), reduce cost (70.33 %), higher yield etc. compared to CRC. The main reasons for non-adoption of SRI/ICM was related to involvement of more efforts, faith towards traditional practices, ignorance and lack of knowledge on scientific water management. The net-return of 816.69,706.63 and $51.48/ha was realized under SRI, ICM and CRC, respectively. The co-efficient of multiple determinations (R 2) of the production function was 0.695 in SRI, 0.714 in ICM and 0.734 in CRC which indicated that about 69.5, 71.4 and 73.4 % of the variation in rice productivity under SRI, ICM and CRC, respectively were explained by the independent variable and remaining 30.5, 28.6 and 26.6 %., respectively in SRI, ICM and CRC were as a result of non-inclusion of some explanatory variables as well as other factors outside the farmers control.


Nutrient Management in System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
Author(s): Kandeshwari Mudhali, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing | January 9, 2014

A field experiment was conducted during rabi (August, 2010-January, 2011) season in Wetland Farms of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to evaluate the integrated nutrient management practices under system of rice intensification. The main objective of the study was to optimize the use of different sources of nutrients under SRI. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. It is evident from the present investigation that application of 75% inorganic N + 12.5% N through FYM + 12.5% N through well decomposed PM is found to be a better option for getting higher productivity and economic returns of rice under system of rice intensification.


Year 2013

Role of Polymer in Weeding and Seeding Machinery in Agriculture Rice Mechanization
Author(s): M. Mohan, G. Sundararaj, Ravindra Naik, A.R. Soman, International Journal of Science and Engineering Applications | December 2013

In agricultural farm machinery, polymers are widely used for many applications. In recent years many agricultural farm implements are adopting polymer based plastic parts like seed dill ferule roller, weeding equipment, star wheel of harvester, vegetable planter hopper, zero till drill flute, animal yoke, maize sheller, diary vessels etc as a step towards value engineering. By varying the synthetic blend component and its miscibility with starch, the morphology and hence the properties can be regulated easily and efficiently. Blends containing thermoplastic starch (non crystalline starch) may be blended or grafted with biodegradable polyesters, such as polycaprolactone, to increase flexibility and resistance to moisture. Blends mainly formed into films and sheets, that are used for foaming and injection molding. By mixing thermoplastic starch with cellulose derivatives, rigid and dimensionally stable injection molded articles result. Seeding and weeding in paddy is an essential component in paddy production. There are many models of seeders and single row cono weeders available in the market which are being used for mechanized seeding and weeding operation. These are basically made with Mild Steel which has certain disadvantages in terms of mach- inability, reproducibility, weight, life, appearance etc. An improved manually operated 8-row drum seeder (plastic moulded) for direct sowing of pre-germinated paddy for wetlands and plastic moulded cono weeder developed was evaluated for its performance in various farmers field. It was observed that the cost of production of plastic moulded eight row drum seeder and plastic moulded cones for cono weeder was almost on par to that of these equipment made with MS sheet. Field studies revealed that plastic moulded seeder and cono weeder recorded higher field capacity, seeding/ weeding index and performance index over implement made of MS, with lower working force and plant damage. The ergonomic study revealed that heart beat/min, VO2/min, ODR score, body part discomfort score, OCR as VO2 max, per cent of plastic moulded equipment was found better over metallic model of equipment. This clearly gave an indication that there is a scope for substitution of MS material by polymers in rice mechanization. This paper deals with production process and performances evaluation of plastic moulded cono weeder for wet land paddy production.


Challenges of increasing water saving and water productivity in the rice sector: Introduction to the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and this issue
Author(s): Norman Uphoff, Amir Kassam, Amod Thakur, Taiwan Water Conservancy | P. 1-13, No. 4, Vol. 61, December 2013

The issue begins with a meta-analysis of data from the growing body of literature that reports on scientifically-conducted evaluations, to assess SRI's main water effects as thoroughly as possible from published sources. This overview analysis is complemented by case studies from a diverse set of countries (China, Kenya, Afghanistan and Iraq) where SRI methods have been introduced under widely varying soil, climatic and institutional conditions..


Meta-analysis evaluating water use, water saving and water productivity in irrigated production of rice with SRI vs Standard Management Methods
Author(s): Pratyaya Jagannath, Hemant Pullabhotla, Norman Uphoff | P. 14-49, No. 4, Vol. 61, December 2013

A meta-analysis was done of data from 29 published studies comparing SRI and non-SRI methods for irrigated rice production that had reported results from a total of 251 comparison trials. The purpose was to assess the differences in total and irrigation water use associated with SRI vs. non-SRI rice crop management practices, evaluating water reductions achieved with SRI management and calibrating differences in water productivity.


Agricultural water savings possible through SRI for water management in Sichuan, China
Author(s): Zheng Jiaguo, Chi Zhongzhi, Li Xuyi, Jiang Xinlu | P. 50-62, No. 4, VOL. 61, December 2013

This article focuses on how the original SRI ideas, which in initial trials added 20% to average yield, have been adapted, modified and extended in Sichuan to suit local climatic, soil, labor-power, and other conditions. Some initial trials, for example, which established fewer hills quite widely spaced but with more plants hill-1 (3 plants set apart in a triangular pattern) gave a 55% increase in yield. Other modifications such as planting on raised beds (no-till) with straw or plastic cover, plastic tray nurseries for seedlings, and modified water management regimes are also reported on in this article..


Water productivity under the System of Rice Intensification from experimental plots and farmer surveys in Mwea, Kenya
Author(s): J.A. Ndiiri, B.M. Mati, P.G. Home, B. Odongo | P. 63-75, No. 4, VOL. 61, December 2013

For this study, the factors considered as defining SRI were transplanting only one seedling per hill, aged 8-15 days, with spacing at least 20cm x 20cm; weeding the crop at least three times at intervals of ten days; and intermittently irrigating the fields. Contributions that could be made by using organic manure for fertilization and by soil-aerating weed control, as recommended for SRI, were not considered due to limited availability of organic materials and mechanical push-weeders at the time of the study..


Rice production under water management constraints with SRI methods in northeastern Afghanistan
Author(s): Ali Muhammad Ramzi, Humayun Kabir | P. 76-85, NO. 4, VOL. 61, December 2013

Starting in 2007, the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) was introduced under a project of the Aga Khan Foundation with EU support as an alternative to the prevailing methods of rice cultivation. These methods involve the inundation of rice fields and are highly water consuming. The project sought to improve downstream users' access to water by introducing water-saving measures to upstream rice-growing farmers. To the extent that SRI's water saving methods could improve upstream farmers' yield, they would have incentive to switch to the new methods, benefiting themselves and, indirectly, other farmers downstream.


Irrigation water use efficiency for rice production in southern Iraq under System of Rice Intensification management
Author(s): Khidhir A. Hameed, F. A. Jaber, A. J. Mosa | P. 86-93, No. 4, VOL. 61, December 2013

Field trials were conducted at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station southern Iraq during the 2010 and 2011 rice seasons. The trials assessed the effects on grain yield and on irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) when following three different irrigation schedules while employing System of Rice Intensification (SRI) methods of crop management. These effects were evaluated with four varieties, namely, Anbar-33, Jasmine, Mishkhab-2, and Furat-1.


A high-yielding, water-saving innovation combining SRI with plastic cover on no-till raised beds in Sichuan, China
Author(s): Lu Shihua, Dong Yujiao, Yuan Jiang, H. Lee, Hilario Padilla | P. 94-109, No. 4, VOL. 61, December 2013

Sichuan province in southern China is a major rice-producing area, but two-thirds of its 2 million hectares of paddy fields are located in hilly and mountainous areas that have limited irrigation facilities and are often affected by drought. Since 1998, the Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences in cooperation with China Agricultural University has been studying the use of plastic film cover on raised beds as a simple technology to save water and increase rice yield..


A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions from SRI and flooded rice production in SE India
Author(s): Alfred Gathorne-Hardy, D. Narasimha Reddy, Barbara Harriss-White | P. 110-125, No. 4, VOL. 61, December 2013

Rice feeds more people than any other crop, but each kilogram of rice is responsible for substantially more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than other key staple foods. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has recently received considerable attention for its ability to increase yields while using less water. Yet so far there has been little research into the GHG emissions associated with SRI production systems, and how they compare to those from conventional flooded-rice production techniques. A streamlined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was used to compare the GHG emissions and groundwater use from SRI and from conventional rice production. Input data were derived from farmer questionnaires in SE India and appropriate secondary data sources.


Methane emission patterns and their associated soil microflora with SRI and conventional systems of rice cultivation in Tamil Nadu, India
Author(s): S. K. Rajakishore, P. Doraisamy, K.S. Subramanian, M.Maheswari | P. 126-134, No. 4, VOL. 61, December 2013

Methane emissions increased progressively with the advance of crop growth until flowering and then declined thereafter. Notably, the levels of emission were consistently higher under conventional crop management compared to SRI methods of cultivation, by 27.8-42.6% during summer season, and by 33.0-43.1% in kharif season. Cumulative methane emissions for the entire cropping season were considerably lower in SRI (31.8 and 37.7 kg ha-1) than conventional cultivation (44.6 and 55.5 kg ha-1) in the summer and kharif seasons, respectively. The conclusion was that with SRI management, total methane emissions were reduced by 29 and 32% during the summer and kharif seasons, respectively..


Effects of groundwater level on CH4 and N2O emissions under SRI paddy management in Indonesia
Author(s): Budi I. Setiawan, Arief Irmansyah, Chusnul Arif, Tsugihiro Watanabe, Masaru Mizoguchi, Hisaaki Kato | P. 135-146, No. 4, VOL. 61, December 2013

Enhancing water productivity in paddy fields is becoming a more critical issue in the context of climate change. While various techniques have been developed to use irrigation water more effectively to meet the growing demand for water when cultivating paddy rice, most have not increased crop production, and sometimes have contributed to declines in yield. Substantial increases in both crop yield and water productivity have been reported from SRI paddy fields by making certain modifications in crop and water management. While there is documentation of the beneficial effects of reduced water levels on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from conventional paddy fields, there is little published information about these effects in paddy fields under SRI management.


Impact of Water Management on Yield and Water Productivity with System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Conventional Transplanting System in Rice
Author(s): Amod Kumar Thakur, Rajeeb Kumar Mohanty, Dhiraj U. Patil, Ashwani Kumar, Paddy and Water Environment, Springer Link | September 2013

The system of rice intensification (SRI) reportedly enhances yield with less water requirement. This claim was investigated to determine the effects of alternative cultivation methods and water regimes on crop growth and physiological performance. Treatment combinations compared SRI with the conventional transplanting system (CTS) using standard practices, evaluating both along a continuum from continuous flooding to water applications at 1, 3, 5, or 7 days after disappearance of ponded water (DAD), subjecting plants to differing degrees of water stress while reducing total water expenditure. SRI methods gave significant changes in plants’ phenotype in terms of root growth and tillering, with improved xylem exudation and photosynthetic rates during the grain-filling stage compared to CTS. This resulted in significant increases in panicle length, more grains and more filled grains panicle−1, greater 1,000-grain weight, and higher grain yield under SRI management. Overall, averaged across the five water regimes evaluated, SRI practice produced 49 % higher grain yield with 14 % less water than under CTS; under SRI, water productivity increased by 73 %, from 3.3 to 5.7 kg ha-mm−1. The highest CTS grain yield and water productivity were with the 1-DAD treatment (4.35 t ha−1 and 3.73 kg ha-mm−1); SRI grain yield and water productivity were the greatest at 3-DAD (6.35 t ha−1 and 6.47 kg ha-mm−1).


Differential responses of system of rice intensification (SRI) and conventional flooded-rice management methods to applications of nitrogen fertilizer
Author(s): Amod Kumar Thakur, Sreelata Rath, Krishna Gopal Mandal, SpringerLink, Plant and Soil | September 2013

Rising food demand, slowing productivity growth, poor N-use efficiency in rice, and environmental degradation necessitate the development of more productive, environmentally-sound crop and soil management practices. The system of rice intensification (SRI) has been proposed as a methodology to address these trends. However, it is not known how its modified crop-soil-water management practices affect efficiency of inorganic nitrogen applications. Field experiments investigated the impacts of SRI management practices with different N-application rates on grain yield, root growth and activity, uptake of N and its use-efficiency, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf N-concentration, and photosynthetic rate in comparison with standard management practices for transplanted flooded rice (TFR). Overall, grain yield with SRI was 49 % higher than with TFR, with yield enhanced at every N application dose. N-uptake, use-efficiency, and partial factor productivity from applied N were significantly higher in SRI than TFR. Higher leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents during the ripening-stage in SRI plants reflected delayed leaf-senescence, extension of photosynthetic processes, and improved root-shoot activities contributing to increased grain yield. Rice grown under SRI management used N fertilizer more efficiently due to profuse root development and improved physiological performance resulting in enhanced grain yield compared to traditional flooded rice.


Development of nursery raising technique for "system of rice intensification" machine transplanting
Author(s): P. Dhananchezhiyan, C. Divaker Durairaj and S. Parveen, African Journal of Agricultural Research | August 1, 2013

This study was aimed to develop the spaced mat nursery to suit the available transplanter for System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method of cultivation. To achieve 100% seed germination, enough root networks to provide enough rigidity for the mat and to offer conducive growth environment, the soil medium was optimized. Nine treatment media were prepared namely vermisoil (field soil+vermicompost-1:1, 2:1 and 3:1), soil+farm yard manure (FYM) soil (field soil+farm yard manure-1:1, 2:1 and 3:1), field soil+coirpith (1:1 and 2:1) and field soil alone. After 14 days of sowing, seedling height and root length were measured in all trays. Among the nine treatment media studied the maximum nursery height and root length of 17.06 and 10.75 cm was observed in FYM soil and vermisoil, respectively prepared in 1:1 ratio. For the same treatment media when ratio was changed to 2:1 it recorded 16.26 and 10.14 cm respectively. For the stiffness studies, field soil was mixed with decomposed sieved coirpith and fibrous coirpith each in the ratio of 1:1 and 2:1 and tested with and without base layer and measured the stiffness force. The mat stiffness was found to be maximum for a media mixture of field soil and coirpith at 1:1 and 2:1 ratios with a corrugated sheet base layer. From the results, the soil medium for growth and stiffness was optimized as field soil, FYM and fibrous coirpith in the ratio of 2:1:1.


Of yield gaps and yield ceilings: Making plants grow in particular places
Author: Dominic Glover, Elsevier | June 28, 2013

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and rice genetic improvement are proposed as two approaches to improving and increasing rice production. In recent exchanges, they have been represented by their respective supporters as starkly contrasting, almost mutually incompatible alternatives. However, advocates on both sides of this argument have tended to stress the genetic and physiological characteristics of rice plants and place less emphasis on the spatially and temporally situated knowledge and management skills of farmers, which are the means by which any agricultural technology is locally adapted and integrated into livelihood strategies, and technological potential is translated into real outcomes in specific settings. Taking this proposition seriously would entail a substantial reorganisation of agricultural research and extension, bridging the historical divide between these two wings of professional agronomy. It would require agronomists of both types to work more collaboratively with farmers. It would also require scientists to produce new kinds of outputs, such as analytical frameworks, heuristics and decision-making tools to help farmers apply scientific insights to their own constrained circumstances. This argument is made with reference to the cases of SRI (a cultivation system that is said to boost farm yields without the need for genetically improved germplasm) and C4 rice (a crop-improvement project intending to ‘supercharge’ rice photosynthesis to increase rice yields). The paper uses the agronomic concepts of the ‘yield gap’ and the ‘yield ceiling’ to offer a perspective on strategic questions about the goals and organisation of agricultural research and extension.


SRI - A Method for Sustainable Intensification of Rice Production with Enhanced Water Productivity
Author(s): Mahender Kumar R, Raghuveer Rao P, Surekha K, Padmavathi Ch, Srinivas Prasad M, Ravindra Babu V, Subba Rao LV, Latha PC, Sreedevi B, Ravichandran S, Ramprasad as, Muthuraman P, Gopalakrishnan S, Vinod Goud V and Viraktamath BC, Agrotechnology | June 20, 2013

Climate change induced higher temperatures will increase crops’ water requirements. Every 10°C increase in mean temperature, results in 7% decline in the yield of rice crop. Hence, there is a need to develop water saving technologies in rice which consumes more than 50% of the total irrigation water in agriculture. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is one such water saving rice production technology. Experiments were conducted at different locations in India including research farm of Directorate of Rice Research (DRR), Hyderabad, during 2005-10 to assess the potential of SRI in comparison to normal transplanting/Standard Planting (NTP/SP) under flooded condition. SRI recorded higher grain yield (6 to 65% over NTP) at majority of locations. Long term studies clearly indicated that grain yield was significantly higher (12-23% and 4-35% over NTP in Kharif and Rabi seasons, respectively) in SRI (with organic + inorganic fertilizers) while the SRI (with100% organic manures), recorded higher yield (4-34%) over NTP only in the Rabi seasons. Even though, SRI resulted in higher productivity, the available nutrient status in soil was marginally higher (10, 42 and 13% over NTP for N, P and K, respectively) at the end of four seasons. There was a reduction in the incidence of pests in SRI and the relative abundance of plant parasitic nematodes was low in SRI as compared to the NTP. About 31% and 37% saving in irrigation water was observed during Kharif and Rabi seasons, respectively in both methods of SRI cultivation over NTP. SRI performed well and consistently reduced requirement of inputs such as seed and water in different soil conditions. SRI method, using less water for rice production can help in overcoming water shortage.


Response to 'Combining sustainable agricultural production with economic and environmental benefits'
Author(s): James Sumberg, Jens Andersson, Ken Giller, John Thompson, The Geographical Journal (Vol. 179, Issue 2, Pages 183-185) | June 2013

We suggest that a recent commentary piece in The Geographical Journal on Conservation Agriculture (CA) and the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) (Kassam and Brammer 2012 was misleading because it drew very selectively from the literature, and presented its conclusions as both widely accepted and uncontroversial. Kassam and Brammer's intervention in the continuing debates around CA and SRI can be understood as a manifestation of the new ‘contested agronomy’. While Kassam and Brammer call on geographers to do research that will promote the spread of CA and SRI, we suggest that this misconstrues and devalues the potential contribution of geography and social science more generally to agricultural development.


Risk and Technology Adoption: The Case of The System of Rice Intensification in Andhra Pradesh, India
Author(s): Arce Haanraadts, N.L. (Nadine), Wageningen University | August 2013

This thesis examines the role of individual risk attitudes and risk perceptions in the decision to adopt the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Andhra Pradesh, India. I conducted a survey and a field experiment to elicit the risk preferences of Indian farmers, who faced the decision of adopting SRI, potentially being low in investment and high in rewards. The major risks in rice production are compared between SRI and conventional methods, and also the farmer’s perceptions on risks and risk preferences are examined. I find that SRI is a less risky rice production method than the conventional method and that farmers also perceive SRI to be less risky. However, dis-adopters find SRI to be more risky than adopters, farmers that have performed SRI regularly in the past years. Risk preferences do not play a role.


Mitigation of greenhouse gas emission with system of rice intensification in the Indo-Gangetic Plains
Author(s): Niveta Jain, Rachana Dubey, D. S. Dubey, Jagpal Singh, M. Khanna, H. Pathak, Arti Bhatia, Paddy and Water Environment, Springer Link | August 2013

System of rice intensification (SRI) is an alternate method of conventional puddled, transplanted, and continuously flooded rice cultivation for higher yield, water saving, and increased farmer’s income. The SRI may also have considerable impact on greenhouse gas emission because of difference in planting, water and nutrient management practices. A field experiment was conducted with three planting methods: conventional puddled transplanted rice (TPR), conventional SRI with 12-days-old seedling (SRI) and modified SRI with 18-days-old seedling (MSRI) to study their effect on methane and nitrous oxide emission. Seasonal integrated flux (SIF) for methane was highest in the conventional method (22.59 kg ha−1) and lowest in MSRI (8.16 kg ha−1). Methane emissions with SRI and MSRI decreased by 61.1 and 64 %, respectively, compared to the TPR method. Cumulative N2O–N emission was 0.69, 0.90, and 0.89 kg ha−1 from the TPR, SRI, and MSRI planting methods, respectively. An average of 22.5 % increase in N2O–N emission over the TPR method was observed in the SRI and MSRI methods. The global warming potential (GWP), however, reduced by 28 % in SRI and 30 % in MSRI over the TPR method. A 36 % of water saving was observed with both SRI and MSRI methods. Grain yield in the SRI and MSRI methods decreased by 4.42 and 2.2 %, respectively, compared to the TPR method. Carbon efficiency ratio was highest in the MSRI and lowest in the TPR method. This study revealed that the SRI and MSRI methods were effective in reducing GWP and saving water without yield penalty in rice.


Performance of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Godavari delta of Andhra Pradesh
Author(s): A. Upendra Rao, A.V. Ramana and T.V. Sridhar, Annals of Agricultural Research, Vol. 34 (2): 118-121 | June 2013

Field experiments were conducted for two consecutive rabi seasons of 2009 & 2010 in seven randomly selected farmer's fields covering both East and West Godavari Districts of Andhra Pradesh to compare the performance of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) over recommended practice and farmers practice of transplanted rice. The results revealed that SRI practice proved to be superior over the recommended practice as well as traditional farmers practice. SRI matures early by 3-4 days with higher tiller to panicle conversion ratio (83.1%), higher spikelet fertility (82.9%), panicle weight, grain yield (6.95 to7.34 t ha-1),straw yield and gross returns with 21.5 to 26.1% water saving, respectively, in both the years of experimentation.


The roles of risk and ambiguity in the adoption of the system of rice intensification (SRI): evidence from Indonesia
Author: Kazushi Takahashi, SpringerLink | May 2013

Given the recognized yield-enhancing potential of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), its low adoption and high discontinuance rates in some locales are puzzling. Combining experimental measures of risk and ambiguity aversion with household-level and plot-level panel data collected in rural Indonesia, this study empirically explores factors shaping SRI’s adoption and discontinuance. Employing multivariate and Heckman probit models to control unobserved heterogeneities, we find that farmers’ risk aversion significantly reduces their likelihood of using all individual SRI practices. However, once the effects of risk aversion on the use of SRI in the previous year are statistically controlled, risk aversion does not significantly explain farmers’ subsequent decisions to continue or discontinue SRI practices. Farmers’ ambiguity preferences play no significant role in decisions to use most practices, except alternate wetting and drying, which requires proper coordination of irrigation among neighboring farmers and thus amplifies the uncertainty of effective implementation. The results also show that access to irrigation is a significant factor in the use of SRI and its continuance. Moreover, as SRI requires greater input of labor and therefore curtails time for alternative household activities, including off-farm work, family composition is a significant factor determining its adoption and continuing use. Although these findings are not necessarily generalizable, our study expands the existing knowledge of factors underlying SRI’s slow diffusion.


Response of basmati (Oryza sativa L.) rice varieties to system of rice intensification (SRI) and conventional methods of rice cultivation
Author(s): Rajiv K. Singh, A.N. Singh, Hardev Ram, S. Rajendra Prasad and Rajesh K. Chauhan, Annals of Agricultural Research, Vol. 34 (1): 50-56, Indian Society of Agricultural Science | April 2013

A field experiment was conducted during kharif, 2011 to find out effect of SRI & conventional rice culture on seed yield & quality of rice. The experiment comprised of 12 treatment combinations of two crop establishment method i.e., system of rice intensification and conventional method and 6 rice varieties (HUR 105, MTU 7029, Pratikshya, Pusa Sugandh 2, Pusa Sugandh 5 and Pusa Sugandh 6). Results revealed that growth (DMA, Plant height), yield attributes (tillers plant-1, No. of filled grains panicles-1, grains panicles-1 and seed yield) of rice increased significantly due to the system of rice intensification (SRI) practices as compared to conventional method. Out of 6 varieties Pusa Sugandh 2 was found significantly superior in growth and yield attributes over other varieties except Pusa Sugandh 5 which was at par in plant height and tillers m-2 and MTU 7029 which had significantly higher yield attributes. In the quality parameter viz. germination % and vigour index was found maximum in system of rice intensification with 25 x 25 cm spacing and 12 days young seedlings.


Root growth, yield and NPK uptake of rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties grown by system of rice intensification with varying planting geometry and weed management practices
Author(s): Nain Singh, O.V.S. Thenua, Dinesh Kumar and V.K. Tyagi, Annals of Agricultural Research, Vol. 34 (1): 26-35, Indian Society of Agricultural Science | April 2013

Field experiments were conducted for two years in sandy clay loam soil during kharif (rainy season) 2005 and 2006 at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to assess the root growth, yield and NPK uptake of aromatic rice varieties under varying weed management options and planting geometry. 'Pusa Sugandh 3' and 'Pusa Sugandh 5' varieties recorded statistically similar root dry weight at 0-15 cm soil depth, but both accumulated higher root dry weight than 'Pusa Basmati 1'. On an average, variety 'Pusa Sugandh 5' produced 18.9% and 22.5% higher grain yield over 'Pusa Basmati 1' and 'Pusa Sugandh 3', respectively. Planting geometry 25 cm x 25 cm resulted in higher yield and NPK uptake than 30 cm x 30 cm. The varied planting geometry did not affect the NPK concentration in rice grain or straw significantly in either year of the study. The highest NPK concentration in rice grains and straw was estimated in weed free treatment, which in general, was significantly higher than both anilophos @ 0.4 kg/ha and weedy check. The highest NPK in grain + straw was removed by rice variety 'Pusa Sugandh 5'.


Influence of Crop Nutrition on Grain Yield, Seed Quality and Water Productivity under two Rice Cultivation Systems
Author(s): Y.V. Singh, K.K. Singh and S.K. Sharma, Elsevier, Rice Science | March 2013

The system of rice intensification (SRI) is reported to have advantages like lower seed requirement, less pest attack, shorter crop duration, higher water use efficiency and the ability to withstand higher degree of moisture stress than traditional method of rice cultivation. With this background, SRI was compared with traditional transplanting technique at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India during two wet seasons (2009–2011). In the experiment laid out in a factorial randomized block design, two methods of rice cultivation [conventional transplanting (CT) and SRI] and two rice varieties (Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa 44) were used under seven crop nutrition treatments, viz. T1, 120 kg/hm2 N, 26.2 kg/hm2 P and 33 kg/hm2 K; T2, 20 t/hm2 farmyard manure (FYM); T3, 10 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N; T4, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 90 kg/hm2 N; T5, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.5 kg/hm2 blue green algae (BGA); T6, 5 t/hm2 FYM + 60 kg/hm2 N + 1.0 t/hm2 Azolla, and T7, N0P0K0 (control, no NPK application) to study the effect on seed quality, yield and water use. In SRI, soil was kept at saturated moisture condition throughout vegetative phase and thin layer of water (2–3 cm) was maintained during the reproductive phase of rice, however, in CT, standing water was maintained in crop growing season. Results revealed that CT and SRI gave statistically at par grain yield but straw yield was significantly higher in CT as compared to SRI. Seed quality was superior in SRI as compared to CT. Integrated nutrient management (INM) resulted in higher plant height with longer leaves than chemical fertilizer alone in both the rice varieties. Grain yield attributes such as number of effective tillers per hill, panicle length and panicle weight of rice in both the varieties were significantly higher in INM as compared to chemical fertilizer alone. Grain yields of both the varieties were the highest in INM followed by the recommended doses of chemical fertilizer. The grain yield and its attributes of Pusa 44 were significantly higher than those of Pusa Basmati 1. The seed quality parameters like germination rate and vigor index as well as N uptake and soil organic carbon content were higher in INM than those in chemical fertilizer alone. CT rice used higher amount of water than SRI, with water saving of 37.6% to 34.5% in SRI. Significantly higher water productivity was recorded in SRI as compared to CT rice.


Mild to prolonged stress increased rice tillering and source-to-sink nutrient translocation under SRI management
Author(s): K. K. Hazra, Subhash Chandra, Springer Link, Paddy and Water Environment, March 2013

System of rice intensification (SRI) is a water-saving agro-technique being popularized in Southern Asia including India. A particular key practice in SRI, reduced water application (no continuous flooding), needs to be more farmer-friendly for its mass adoption under traditional and non-traditional cultivation. A field experiment was conducted maintaining different water regimes throughout the crop season (vegetative as well as reproductive stages) by scheduling irrigation applications at 1, 3, or 5 days after disappearance of ponded water (DADPW), using two different plant spacings and two different varieties. With an increase in the period of water stress, tiller production was increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and found to be maximum under prolonged stress, i.e., 5 days after disappearance of ponded water (5 DADPW). Increased tiller production did not result in yield increments, but yield-contributing parameters (panicle weight, grain weight per panicle, filled grain percentage, and test weight) were confirmed as critical determinants of yield. Plant nutrient (NPK) uptake was reduced under stress conditions, but the translocation of phosphorus and potassium from sources to sink was increased significantly in this study. Nutrient utilization efficiency was also enhanced under mild (3 DADPW) to prolonged (5 DADPW) water stress conditions. No significant reduction in yield was recorded under mild water stress, and this resulted in increased water productivity; however, significant yield loss was observed under prolonged water stress (5 DADPW).


Assessment of different methods of rice (Oryza sativa. L) cultivation affecting growth parameters, soil chemical, biological, and microbiological properties, water saving, and grain yield in rice–rice system
Author(s): Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, R. Mahender Kumar, Pagidi Humayun, V. Srinivas, B. Ratna Kumari, R. Vijayabharathi, Amit Singh, K. Surekha,  Ch. Padmavathi, N. Somashekar, P. Raghuveer Rao, P. C. Latha,  L. V. Subba Rao,• V. R. Babu, B. C. Viraktamath, Springer Link, Paddy and Water Environment, March 2013

Field experiments were conducted at DRR farm located at ICRISAT, Patancheru, in sandy clay loam soils during four seasons, Kharif 2008, Rabi 2008–2009, Kharif 2009 and Rabi 2009–2010, to investigate growth parameters, water-saving potential, root characteristics, chemical, biological, and microbial properties of rhizosphere soil, and grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by comparing the plants grown with system of rice intensification (SRI) methods, with organic or organic + inorganic fertilization, against current recommended best management practices (BMP). All the growth parameters including plant height, effective tillers (10–45 %), panicle length, dry matter, root dry weight (24–57 %), and root volume (10–66 %) were found to be significantly higher with in SRI-organic + inorganic over BMP. With SRI-organic fertilization, growth parameters showed inconsistent results; however, root dry weight (3–77 %) and root volume (31–162 %) were found significantly superior compared to BMP. Grain yield was found significantly higher in SRI-organic + inorganic (12–23 and 4–35 % in the Kharif and Rabi seasons, respectively), while with SRI-organic management, yield was found higher (4–34 %) only in the Rabi seasons compared to BMP. An average of 31 and 37 % of irrigation water were saved during Kharif and Rabi seasons, respectively, with both SRI methods of rice cultivation compared to BMP. Further, total nitrogen, organic carbon%, soil dehydrogenase, microbial biomass carbon, total bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were found higher in the two SRI plots in comparison to BMP. It is concluded that SRI practices create favorable conditions for beneficial soil microbes to prosper, save irrigation water, and increase grain yield.


Combining sustainable agricultural production with economic and environmental benefits
Author(s): Amir Kassam and Hugh Brammer, The Geographical Journal (Vol. 179, Issue 1, Pages 11-18) | March 11-18, 2013

Two paradigm shifts in agriculture are taking place that provide important benefits to farmers and to the environment. Conservation Agriculture involves minimising soil disturbance by avoiding tillage operations; maintaining a continuous soil cover of plants and mulch; and cultivating diverse plant species. Together, these practices protect soils against erosion and desiccation; increase soil organic matter contents that in turn increase soil moisture and nutrient supplying capacities; reduce farmers’ costs of cultivation; reduce chemical pollution of rivers and groundwater from run-off and leaching of fertilisers; and increase carbon sequestration. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) involves growing rice in an aerated soil instead of in flooded paddies. Single young seedlings are planted at regular wide spacing, and the soils kept moist but not wet throughout the growing period. Combined with placement of plant nutrients, this practice increases crop yields; reduces costs of land preparation and seed, fertiliser and water use; and reduces methane emissions.


Screening of selected promising rice hybrids under modified system of rice intensification (SRI) method in upland eco system
Author(s): Kumar H.B. Halesh, Deshpande, V.K., Vyakaranahal B.S., Hanamarahatti N.G., Indian Journals | February 28, 2013

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station Mughad, for screening of 11 rice hybrids, in comparison with local check, under modified method of System of Rice Intensification (SRI). All hybrids showed significant difference for specific yield attributing characters. Among them MGD101 showed highest plant height (80.13cm), GK-5003 took less number of days to 50% flowering, Sahyadri-4 recorded highest number of total tillers per plant (22.25), while GK-5003 recorded highest Productive tillers (19.37), Panicle Length (23.45cm), Panicle weight (4.00g), Seed weight per plant (33.96g), Higher 1000 seed weight (24.68 g),Total Number of spikelet's (189.17),Number of filled spikelet's (166.14).Lower unfilled spikelet (34.57),Grain yield (2923.16 g/plot and 9.74 t/ha).


Doing Different Things or Doing It Differently? - Rice Intensification Practices in 13 States of India
Author(s): K Palanisami, K R Karunakaran, Upali Amarasinghe, and C R Ranganathan, Economic and Political Weekly (Special Articles), Vol - XLVIII No. 08 | February 23, 2013

Can the System of Rice Intensification be the answer to meet the country's future rice demand? A macro-level study covering 13 major rice-growing states indicates that fields with SRI have a higher average yield compared to non-SRI fields. Out of the four core SRI components typically recommended, 41% adopted one component, 39% adopted two to three components, and only 20% adopted all the components. Full adopters recorded the highest yield increase (31%), but all adopters had yields higher than those that used conventional practices. They also had higher gross margins and lower production costs compared to non-SRI fields. Though the rice yield of the country can significantly increase under SRI and modified SRI practices, there are major constraints that have to be tackled before this can be achieved.


Pattern of methane emission and water productivity under different methods of rice crop establishment
Author(s): Priyanka Suryavanshi, Y. V. Singh, R. Prasanna, Arti Bhatia, Y. S. Shivay, Springer Link, Paddy and Water Environment, Volume 11, Issue 1-4, pp 321-329 | January 2013

Methane (CH4) emission and water productivity were estimated in an experiment conducted during wet (rainy) season of 2010 at the research farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India. Treatments comprising three methods of crop establishment viz., conventional transplanting (CT), system of rice intensification (SRI) and double transplanting (DT) were laid out in randomized block design with four replications. Scented rice (Oryza sativa L) variety ‘Pusa Basmati 1401’ was transplanted in puddle field. In CT and SRI 21 and 12-day-old seedlings, respectively, were transplanted while in DT overall 45-day-old seedlings were transplanted. In CT and DT flooded conditions while in SRI saturated conditions were maintained. Results indicated that among the methods of crop establishment, CT had maximum cumulative CH4 emission (32.33 kg ha−1) followed by DT (29.30 kg ha−1) and SRI (19.93 kg ha−1). Temporal CH4 flux fluctuated between 79.7 and 482.0 mg m−2 day−1 under CT; 46.0 and 315.0 mg m−2 day−1 in SRI and 86.7 and 467.3 mg m−2 day−1 in DT. Considerable temporal variations in the individual CH4 fluxes were observed. Flux of CH4 was generally higher in early stage of crop and peaked about 21 days after transplanting coinciding with tillering stage of crop. CH4 flux declined gradually from 75 days after transplanting and stabilized at the harvest stage of rice in all the three methods of transplanting. Global warming potential was highest in CT (807.4 kg CO2 ha−1) and lowest in SRI (498.25 kg CO2 ha−1). However, a reverse trend was observed with carbon efficiency ratio. The water savings to the extent of six irrigations was recorded in SRI over CT. A saving of 27.4 % irrigation water and 18.5 % total water was recorded in SRI over CT while the corresponding values of DT over CT were 14.5 and 9.8 %. Water productivity of SRI (3.56 kg/ha mm) was significantly higher as compared to DT (2.87 kg/ha mm) and CT (2.61 kg/ha mm).


Feasibility of SRI methods for reduction of irrigation and NPS pollution in Korea
Author(s): Joong-Dae Choi, Woon-Ji Park, Ki-Wook Park, Kyong-Jae Lim, Springer Link, Paddy and Water Environment, Volume 11, Issue 1-4, pp 241-248 | January 2013

An experimental study on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) methods was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using them to conserve irrigation water and reduce non-point source (NPS) pollution in Korea. Eight experimental runoff plots were prepared at an existing paddy field. Runoff and water quality were measured during the 2010 growing season in which a Japonica rice variety was cultivated. The irrigation water requirements of SRI methods and conventional (CT) plots were 243.2 and 547.3 mm, respectively, meaning that SRI methods could save 55.6% of irrigation water. Runoff from SRI methods plots decreased 5–15% compared with that from CT plots. Average NPS pollutant concentrations in runoff from SRI methods plots during rainfall-runoff events were SS 89.4 mg/L, CODCr 26.1 mg/L, CODMn 7.5 mg/L, BOD 2.0 mg/L, TN 4.2 mg/L, and TP 0.4 mg/L. Except for CODCr and TN, these concentrations were significantly lower than those from CT plots. Measured pollution loads from SRI methods plots were SS 874 kg/ha, CODCr 199.5 kg/ha, CODMn 47 kg/ha, BOD 13 kg/ha, TN 36.9 kg/ha, and TP 2.92 kg/ha. These were 15.8–44.1% lower than those from CT plots. Rice plants grew better and healthier in SRI methods plots than in CT plots. However, rice production from SRI methods plots ranged between 76 and 92% of that of CT plots because the planting density in SRI methods plots was too low. It was concluded that SRI methods could be successfully adopted in Korea and could help save a significant amount of irrigation requirement in paddies and reduce NPS pollution discharge.


Impacts of natural resource management technologies on agricultural yield and household income: The system of rice intensification in Timor Leste
Author(s): Author(s): Martin Noltze, Stefan Schwarze and Matin Qaim, Elsevier | January 2013

Natural resource management (NRM) technologies, such as the system of rice intensification (SRI), have been proposed to tackle agricultural challenges such as decreasing productivity growth and environmental degradation. Yet, the benefits of NRM technologies for farmers are often debated. Impacts seem to be context-specific, which are especially relevant in the small farm sector with its large degree of agroecological and socioeconomic heterogeneity. This was not always considered in previous research. We analyze the impacts of SRI adoption on rice yield and household income among smallholder farmers in Timor Leste. Heterogeneity is accounted for in an endogenous switching regression framework. Comparing mean yield and income levels, we find no significant differences between SRI adopters and non-adopters. This is due to negative selection bias; SRI seems to be adopted more on plots and by farmers with less than average yields. Controlling for this bias reveals significant yield and income gains. Poor and non-poor households benefit from SRI adoption; small farms benefit more than larger farms. The results also suggest that in the context of Timor Leste SRI may not be beneficial when compared to conventional rice grown under favorable conditions. Some implications for future research are discussed.


Water Productivity under different puddling intensities and organic amendments in SRI method of Rice Establishment
Author(s): Author(s): Veena Sharma and J. Prabhakara, Shere-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (Jammu), which presented their research paper in 21st Annual Conference and Trade Show at Orlando, Florida in United States, was organized by United States Composting Council and held from January 28th - 31st, 2013

A field experiment was carried for three Kharif and two intervening Rabi seasons, beginning with Kharif 2006 at WMRC research farm of SKUAST Jammu on clay loam soil, to analyze the influence of puddling intensities and organic amendments on water productivity of rice crop and its residual effect on wheat in rice wheat cropping system. Water productivity of rice achieved as a consequence of incident rainfall and applied differential irrigation in C1,C2 (Conventional transplanting of 25-day old seedlings, two per hill, at spacing of 20cm x 15cm, with inorganic fertilizers of N:P2O5:K2O= 30:20:15 kgha -1and 3 t ha-1 FYM respectively, with 7cm depth of irrigations at 8-day frequency) and S1, S2 (SRI transplanting of 10-day old seedlings, one per hill, 25cm x 25cm spacing, with 3 t ha-1 of FYM and wheat Bhusa respectively, with 5cm irrigation at 8 day frequency or less) monitored at 3 week intervals throughout rice growth seasons of Kharif 2006 and 2007 revealed that water productivity was significantly higher in conventionally transplanted plots without organic amendments (C1) than the other treatments (C2,S1,S2), all receiving organic sources of nutrients during the first season. But in the next two Kharif seasons, there was higher water productivity was achieved in SRI plots (S1,S2) as compared to conventionally transplanted plots (C1,C2). There was neither any residual influence of puddling intensities, nor of methods of rice establishment nor of organic additions to soil during rice crop on the grain yield of succeeding wheat crop. Irrespective of differential inputs of water, the soil water content in the preponderant rice rhizosphere has remained at >50% of plant available range, throughout the crop period. There has not been any influence of either puddling levels or organic addition on this uniform moisture status. Similarly, soil water status monitored in Rabi season (2006-07, 2007-08) revealed that soil water status was again in upper half of the plant available moisture range throughout the crop season in all treatment plots.


Year 2012

Prevalence of insect pests, natural enemies and diseases in SRI (System of Rice Intensification) of Rice cultivation in North East Region
Author(s):
Pathak Mahesh, Shakywar R.C., Sah Dinesh, Singh Shyam, Krishi Vigyan Kendra East Siang, College of Horticulture & Forestry, CAU, Pasighat-791 102, Arunachal Pradesh | December 27, 2012

Two rice varieties viz. Deku (local variety) and CAU R-1(improved variety) were transplanted under system of rice intensification (SRI) and traditional system of cultivation. The pooled results of two cropping seasons revealed prevalence of stem borer was significantly lower in SRI system, mean damage of 6.8 and 7.5% (dead heart) and 17.8 and 15.7 (white ear head) was recorded in CAU R1 and Deku, respectively, as against a higher incidence of 11.7 (dead heart) and 12.5% (white ear head) in Deku and 10.7 and 14.4 (dead heart) and 17.8% (white ear head) in CAU R-1 while at reproductive phase, there was no significant difference. The prevalence of blue beetle, case worm, leaf folder and gundhi bug/m2 were lower in SRI as compared to traditional system. The occurrence of natural enemies like dragon flies and wolf spiders was higher in SRI while damsel flies and lady bird beetles population was lower in SRI in comparison to the traditional system. Among all the diseases, blast was lower in SRI with a mean damage of 8.2 and 7.5% in var. Deku and CAU R-1, respectively. The prevalence of other fungal diseases i.e. sheath blight, brown spot and false smut was lower in SRI than traditional system. Among bacterial diseases, bacterial leaf blight incidence was found to be lower in CAU R-1 and Deku with the mean 7.3 and 8.5%, respectively under SRI as compared to a higher level of incidence 14.8 in Deku and 12.8% in CAU R-1 under traditional system. However, there was no significant difference in grain yield between the two systems of cultivation.


Genotypic trade-offs between water productivity and weed competition under the System of Rice Intensification in the Sahel
Author(s): Timothy J. Krupnika, Jonne Rodenburgb, Van Ryan Hadenc, Doudou Mbayed, Carol Shennane, Agricultural Water Management, Vol 115, Pages 158-166 | December 2012

Yield, water productivity and weed-inflicted Relative Yield Losses (RYL) under Recommended Management Practices (RMP) were compared with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) under double-cropping for two seasons and at two locations in the Senegal River Valley. Seven genotypes from Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima species and their interspecific crosses, were grown under weed-free conditions and in competition with weeds. Weed-free grain yields in SRI were never significantly different than those obtained with RMP. An average of 27% (range 18–46%) less water was applied to SRI than required for continuous flooding in RMP, resulting in consistently higher water productivity with SRI. However, when subjected to weed competition, mean SRI yields were significantly lower than RMP in three of four experimental iterations (an average of 28% less). Across experiments, weed-inflicted RYL was greater in SRI than RMP in 81% of observed cases. Weeds reduced the water productivity enhancing benefits of SRI by an average of 38% compared to weed-free treatments, resulting in significantly lower water productivity with SRI in three of four experiments. Rice genotypes Jaya and Sahel-202 were identified as relatively weed-competitive under each crop management system, however both have intermediate-length cycles and required more irrigation than shorter-duration genotypes. When weeds are carefully controlled, good yields and significant water savings can be achieved with SRI. However, this specific requirement of careful weed control might be difficult to meet by farmers coping with high weed infestations or with limited access to tools, inputs or labor to address them. Weed-competitive genotypes could help reduce weed-inflicted yield losses associated with SRI and other water-saving rice production systems, though future breeding efforts should address the trade-offs between weed competitive traits, water productivity and crop duration to meet the needs of farmers practicing double rice cropping.


A study on profile of system of rice intensification (SRI) paddy growers of Karnataka
Author(s): H.S. Sathish, Nagaratna Biradar, J.G. Angadi, S.D. Kololgi and S. Hemalatha, Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 25 (4) : (450-454) 2012 | October - December 2012

The study was conducted during 2009 – 2010 in Haveri, Chikballapur and Uttar Kannada districts of Karnataka state to assess the profile characteristics of farmers growing SRI paddy. Totally 120 respondents were interviewed for the study. Majority of the respondents were middle aged having medium land holdings. Almost equal percent of respondents belonged to high and medium income categories. Majority of them hailed from nuclear and big families possessed local cow and bullocks. Majority of them owned herds of medium size and followed direct method of feeding fodder. Extension contact and extension participation of the respondents was found to be medium. Majority of the respondents belonged to low utilization group with respect to news paper and radio and high in television utilization. More than half of the respondents grew paddy alone in Kharif. High percent of them were practicing SRI method in an area of up to 0.51 acre. Majority of the respondents allotted a land holding of up to 2 acres for paddy cultivation. Almost half of the respondents possessed high experience in paddy cultivation and majority of them were cultivating paddy for grains.


Impact of weeders for weed management in system of rice intensification (SRI)
Author(s): Deshmukh Ghanshyam and Tiwari R.K., Indian Journals | November 19, 2012

The study was undertaken in Shahdol District of Madhya Pradesh to determine the impact of different types of weeder in SRI. Twenty SRI trained farmers, were selected for practicing SRI trained before Jawahar paddy plant marker for line marking at equi-distance among plant to plant and row to row in the grids of 25 x 25 cms and cono weeder, rotary weeder and twin wheel hoe for weeding. It was observed that average productivity was 555 kg/ha as compared to farmers practice 275 kg/ha. Cono weeder and rotary weeder were found suitable for weeding in wet condition and twin wheel hoe in dry condition of SRI fields.


Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI): A Methodology of ‘More with Less’
Author(s): N. Loganandhan, Biksham Gujja, V. Vinod Goud and U. S. Natarajan, Springer Link | September 16, 2012

Sugarcane is a significant crop in contributing to the country’s economy and farmers’ livelihood development. In India, sugar is a 550 billion rupees worth industry, supporting more than 50 million farmers. There is a growing demand for sugar in India. Hence, there will be more and more stress on the sugarcane eco-system in future. But, the present scenario of cane cultivation is not sustainable enough to meet this demand as the input and labor costs are increasing and the national mean cane productivity (2007–10) is at 66.9 t ha-1 only. So, it is necessary to improve the cane productivity in a sustainable way with minimum usage of inputs through some alternate methods on the principles of ‘‘more with less’’. A research study with the objectives of developing a methodology for sustainable sugarcane productivity was carried out at International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics during 2008–11. As a result, a methodology was evolved encompassing six principle components, including improved bud chip method, under a concept called ‘‘Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI)’’. The evaluation trials conducted on the principle components revealed the optimum size and age of the bud chips (4–10 months old) and suitable media combination (cocopith ? sawdust) for raising better seedlings. SSI field trials resulted in about 20 % higher yields. The state governments are showing interest in covering larger areas under SSI. SSI method can revamp the sugarcane.


Crop and water productivity as influenced by rice cultivation methods under organic and inorganic sources of nutrient supply
Author(s): Y.V. Singh, Spinger Link, Paddy and Water Environment | August 28, 2012

A field experiment was conducted during the wet seasons of 2010 and 2011 at New Delhi, India to study the influence of organic, inorganic, and integrated sources of nutrient supply under three methods of rice cultivation on rice yield and water productivity. The experiments were laid out in FRBD with nine treatment combinations. Treatment combinations included three sources of nutrient supply viz., organic, integrated nutrient management, and inorganic nutrition and three rice production systems viz., conventional transplanting, system of rice intensification (SRI) and aerobic rice system. indicated that the conventional and SRI showed at par grain and straw yields but their yields were significantly higher than aerobic rice. Grain yield under organic, inorganic and integrated sources of nutrient supply was at par since the base nutrient dose was same. Plant growth parameters like plant height, tillers, and dry matter accumulation at harvest stage were almost same under conventional and SRI but superior than aerobic rice system. Root knot nematode infestation was significantly higher in aerobic rice as compared to SRI and conventional rice. However, organic, inorganic and integrated sources of nutrient supply did not affect nematode infestation. There was significant advantage in term of water productivity under SRI over conventional transplanted (CT) rice and less quantity of water was utilized in SRI for production of each unit of grain. A water saving of 34.5–36.0 % in SRI and 28.9–32.1 % in aerobic rice was recorded as compared to CT rice.


Effect of Weed Control Methods on Rice Cultivars under SRI practices - Explores suitable weeding method and variety for rice cultivation using the system of rice intensification (SRI) in Nepal
Author(s): Sharad Pandey, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing | August 6, 2012

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is an agro-ecological methodology for increasing the productivity of irrigated rice by changing the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients. Weed infestation is regarded as one of the major causes of low crop yields throughout the world and can cause 50-60% reduction in grain yield under puddled conditions and 91% yield reduction in non-puddled conditions. The issue of weeding is always important because it entails costs as well as benefit. The higher amount of labour for weeding is one of the most criticized aspects of SRI. Viewing these facts, a field experiment was conducted at a farmer’s field at Shivanagar-3, Chitwan, Nepal during the rainy season of 2008 A.D. The study recommends to use the variety Ram and follow three soil-aerating weedings as weed control practice for rice cultivation along with the other elements for crop management under SRI where there are assured facilities for irrigation and drainage. The findings of this study should be useful to farmers, researchers, development workers, policy makers or anyone who may consider the optimum, efficient and effective use of limited inputs for producing higher yield.


Integrated Nutrient Management in SRI
Author(s): Sowmya Cheetty and Venkata Raman, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing | June 18, 2012

System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is considered as a novel and improved practice to raise rice production constrained by several factors. The book presents a comprehensive review on SRI. The performance of cultivars in relation to methods of planting (SRI and conventional transplanting) and the effect of FYM when used alone or in integrated manner on growth, yield and nutrient uptake of rice is presented.


Performance of Hybrids/High Yielding Varieties and Nutrient Management in System of Rice Intensification – A Review
Author(s): Sowmya Ch, Ramana M. Venkata, Indian Journals | May 9, 2012

Rice is the staple cereal food grain of majority of India’s over one billion population. As there is no scope to increase the area under rice, System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is considered as one of the technologies to increase the productivity. Contrary to this, SRI is showed by some workers as labour intensive, difficult to practice and on par to that of conventional method without any yield advantage. Nutrient management must be sound for achieving the yield potential of rice hybrids/HYV’s under SRI. The use of organic manures such as application of FYM has been proved to be viable component of INM for SRI.


Performance of rice (Oryza sativa) varieties at different spacing under system of rice intensification (SRI) in mid hill acid soils of Sikkim Himalayas
Author(s): Avasthe R.K, Kumar Ashok, Rahman H, Indian Journals | April 10, 2012

Field experiments were conducted at the ICAR Sikkim Research Farm, Tadong located at an altitude of 1450 m amsl in the per-humid mid hill acidic soils during kharif (rainy season) of 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the performance of four rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties viz., ‘RCPL 1-87-8’ (medium-duration, 125 days), ‘Pusa Sugandh-2’ (medium-duration, 130 days), ‘RC Maniphou-7’ (long-duration, 150 days) and one local cultivar ‘Thulo Attey’ (long duration, 155 days) under different spacing in system of rice intensification (SRI) compared with conventional rice cultivation. ‘RC Maniphou-7’ recorded the highest grain yield (6.73 t/ha), N uptake (124.8 kg/ha), P uptake (40.5 kg/ha), K uptake (84.3 kg/ha), water use efficiency (2.879 kg/ha-mm), net return (Rs. 72,750) and benefit: cost (2.09) at 20 cm × 20 cm spacing under SRI. Total N, P and K uptake was the highest in SRI with a spacing of 20 cm × 20 cm in ‘RCLP 1-87-8’, ‘RC Maniphou-7’ and local cv ‘Thulo Attey’ over conventional rice cultivation. The optimum spacing under system of rice intensification for ‘RCPL 1-87-8’, ‘RC Maniphou-7’ and local cv ‘Thulo Attey’ was 20 cm × 20 cm. ‘Pusa Sugandh-2’ recorded a 2.0% yield decrease at 20 cm × 20 cm and 23.0% yield decrease at SRI 10 cm × 10 cm, as compared to conventional rice cultivation and did not respond to SRI.


Potential of water saving in irrigated rice through System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
Author(s): Kumar R. Mahender, Surekha K., Padmavathi Ch., Latha P.C., Rao L.V. Subba, Prasad M. Srinivas, Muthuraman P., Ravinchandran S., Babu V. Ravindra, Rupela O.P., Goud Vinod, Singh S.P., Viraktamath B.C., Indian Journals | March 2012

A field experiment was conducted in wet and dry seasons of 2006 and 2007 at Hyderabad to study the influence of different methods of crop establishment viz., system of rice intensification (SRI), Eco-SRI (nutrients applied through organic source only and conventional method on rice productivity, water use efficiency and its productivity. During wet season, grain yield was significantly higher in SRI than conventional method and Eco-SRI by 10.3 and 33.4%, respectively. Whereas, SRI and conventional method were on par and superior to Eco-SRI in rabi. Among the cultivars, Swarna and DRRH2 were significantly superior to other varieties in kharif and rabi, respectively. There was a mean saving of 32% water in SRI as compared to conventional method. Further the amount of water used for 1 kg grain production was higher (3177 lts) for conventional as compared to SRI method (2162 lts). Hence, SRI can become a viable alternative approach to the conventional transplanting having advantage of both in terms of higher yield and water productivity especially in the areas of limited water situations.


Understanding the rapid spread of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Andhra Pradesh: Exploring the building of support networks and media representation
Author(s): Soutrik Basu and Cees Leeuwis, Agricultural Systems, Elsevier | September 2012

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) involves a package of management practices for rice cultivation that was developed by a French Jesuit priest in Madagascar. Although the technical and economic efficacy of the package is heavily contested among rice scientists, the package has spread rapidly across the globe, at least in the sense that many rice farmers now identify them with the term ‘SRI’. Understanding the spreading process of SRI may yield important lessons for agricultural research and extension establishments which often have difficulty to spread their ideas and technologies. This paper seeks to throw some light on the spreading process of SRI within the context of Andhra Pradesh, India. Inspired by innovation theoretical considerations, we do not orient ourselves to the spread at the farmer level, but rather to the way in which SRI was adopted by higher level organisations and institutions. This paper suggests that the formation of a heterogeneous ‘support network’ which transcends the conventional agricultural networks is likely to have played a significant role in the spreading of SRI. As part of this network, an important newspaper has reported disproportionally about SRI and represented it in a highly favourable manner. This simultaneously mirrors support for SRI among higher level actors in the agricultural innovation system, and is likely to have contributed to further awareness and opinion formation at this level.


System of Crop Intensification in Greengram - An innovative approach
Author(s): Sathiyavani Erulan, Velayudham Kumaran, Thavaprakaash Nallasamy, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing | January 1, 2012

System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a novel methodology originated in Madagascar during 1983 and spread all over the world. In the recent past, the successful SRI practices are being extrapolated to other crops in the name of System of Crop Intensification (SCI). The SCI practices also proved to increase the yield levels more than two times. In pursuit of extending the beneficial effect of SRI to SCI in greengram, the present study was programmed. Greengram is one of the important food legumes grown in India and emerged as a nutritive and remunerative pulse crop, capable of providing the quickest return in the shortest possible time besides offering nutritional security to millions of people. By virtue of its superior nutritional quality, short duration and high monetary return, greengram can be grown as intercrop and rice-fallow crop especially by small and marginal farmers. Adoption of SCI practices may enhance the productivity and reduce the gap between per capita availability and consumption; and in turn possible to contribute to nutritional security of the world.


Year 2011

Science, practice and the System of Rice Intensification in Indian agriculture
Author: Dominic Glover, Food Policy, Elsevier | December 2011

The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is claimed to be a novel approach to rice cultivation that is both more productive and more sustainable than conventional methods. Such claims have been challenged or dismissed by many rice scientists, however. Despite the lack of clear and unequivocal endorsement by science, SRI seems to have spread widely and rather quickly to many rice-growing regions, including various areas of India. This paper discusses how and considers why SRI seems to have attracted the support of diverse stakeholders in Indian rice farming. As such, the SRI phenomenon should be taken seriously. Nevertheless, many scientific questions remain to be answered, concerning the biophysical mechanisms involved in SRI and their effects on plant performance and crop yields, the true spread of SRI practices among farmers and the system’s impacts on farm livelihoods, rice production and resource use. Indian enthusiasm for SRI implies a level of dissatisfaction with conventional approaches to rice intensification and a demand for new methods that can address the perceived problems and challenges of agriculture in the future.


Estimation of Efficiency, Sustainability and Constraints in SRI (System of Rice Intensification) vis-a-vis Traditional methods of Paddy Cultivation in North Coastal Zone of Andhra Pradesh
Author(s): I.V.Y. Rama Rao, Agricultural Economics Research Review | July-December 2011

The study has assessed the economics and sustainability of SRI (system of rice intensification) and traditional methods of paddy cultivation in North Coastal Zone of Andhra Pradesh for the period 2008-09, based on the data of costs and returns of crop. Apart from budgeting techniques, benefit-cost ratio (BCR), yield gap analysis, sustainability index and response priority index have been employed in the study. It has shown that BCR is higher for SRI (1.76) than traditional (1.25) methods. Further, there is a 31 per cent yield gap between SRI and traditional methods, in which cultural practices (20.15%) have shown a stronger effect than input use (10.85%). The most important constraint in SRI cultivation has been identified as ‘nursery management’. The SRI method being more skill oriented, the study has observed that yields can be made sustainable if constraints are addressed on war-footing basis.


Effect of Seedling Age on Tillering Pattern and Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under System of Rice Intensification
Author(s): Partha Sarathi Patra and Samsul Haque, ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science | November 2011

Field experiments was conducted during Boro season of 2008 and 2009 at Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya farm, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal to study the effect of seedling age on tillering pattern and yield of rice under system of rice intensification (SRI) in Terai zone of West Bengal. The experiments were laid out in randomized block design with seven treatments and replicated thrice. It was revealed that the highest numbers of effective tillers hill-1 were produced with seedling of 10 days age. Similarly the plots transplanted with 10 days old seedling also recorded the highest number of grains panicle-1, panicle length and test weight resulted in higher grain yield. Transplantation of 10 days old seedling gave 18.66% and 24.99% more grain yield than T1 and T7, respectively. It was also seen that for every days delay in transplanting beyond the age of 10 days, yield was reduced to the extent of 4.5% ha-1 year-1.


Diffusion of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Across Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in India
Author(s): Johnson, B and K. Vijayaragavan, Indian Research Journal Extension | September 2011

System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is one of the few innovations developed by the farmers that have resulted in greater level of interest and enthusiasm not only among the farmers but also among scientists. SRI was diffused first to Tamil Nadu State in India during the year 1999, followed by Andhra Pradesh. However, there is a need to study how SRI was diffused and adopted across the States of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. The initial diffusion of SRI was mainly through literature. In Tamil Nadu, out of 31 districts, in 19 districts SRI has been introduced. At present out of 23 districts in Andhra Pradesh State, SRI has been introduced in 22 districts. The study revealed that farmers’ awareness of SRI happened during 2004-05. The gap between initial awareness and actual adoption ranged from one to twelve months. The delay in adoption was mainly due to labour and technical constraints. Mass media were the major sources of awareness for the farmers, while State Department of Agriculture and State Agricultural Universities were the major sources that provided subsequent knowledge and training. At present, the rate of adoption of SRI practices is at take-off stage. The important attributes which aroused the interest of farmers to gain more knowledge about SRI were high grain and straw yield, lower seed rate, less water requirement and less cost of cultivation. Few farmers discontinued (which is more of disenchantment discontinuance) due to more of labour and institutional constraints and less of technical reasons. Important reasons for non-adoption of SRI practices were risk involved in adopting new practices, shortage of agricultural labour and psychological fear of loss.


Agricultural Groundwater Management in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Focus on Free Electricity Policy and its Reform
Author(s): Rajendra Kondepati, Taylor and Francis Online, International Journal of Water Resources Development, Volume 27, Issue 2 | April 2011

The impact of the free electricity policy on agriculture in the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP), India, is the main focus of this work. It is assumed that this policy has a very high political currency and there is, therefore, a difficultly in recalling it in the short-term. In this context, plausible reforms to this policy are explored with an objective to weed out the inefficiencies in this subsidy regime in the context of groundwater extraction and utilization. These reforms are aimed at reducing the ambit of beneficiaries of this subsidy based on their affordability and increasing the water productivity of agriculture in the state. Some examples exclude large farmers from this policy, offering free electricity conditional upon adopting the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) or adopting micro-irrigation or shifting cropping patterns. These alternate policies are evaluated based on the impact on groundwater extraction, fiscal costs, equity, political feasibility, issues in implementation etc. Finally, it is suggested that the government offers free electricity conditional upon adopting water-efficient cropping practices such as the SRI as a short-term step for increasing the effectiveness of this policy and mitigating its adverse impact on groundwater extraction.


Year 2010

Potential of the System of Rice Intensification for systemic improvement in rice production and water use: the case of Andhra Pradesh, India
Author(s): A. Ravindra and S. Bhagyalaxmi, SpringerLink | October 24, 2010

As opportunities to enhance the irrigation base for raising food production in the country are dwindling, India needs a more concerted effort to increase the efficiency and productivity of its irrigation systems. This study, based on an analysis of experience from the state of Andhra Pradesh, addresses the potential of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) to contribute to systemic corrections in present paddy cultivation, both with regard to agronomic productivity and irrigation water use efficiency. This study points to the considerable increase in rice productivity and farmer incomes, which is being achieved in Andhra Pradesh with substantial reduction in irrigation water application, labor, and seed costs through utilization of SRI methods. Potential public savings on water and power costs could be drawn upon not only for promoting SRI but also to effect systemic corrections in the irrigation sector, to mutual advantage.


Does the System of Rice Intensification Outperform Conventional System? A Case Study of Gujarat
Author(s): Jharna Pathak, GIDR | January 20, 2010

The paper examines the farm level performance of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method of paddy cultivation as against the traditional method. The role of NGOs in raising awareness among farmers about the SRI technique as also of agricultural extension services in general.


Year 2008

Work load on women using cono weeder in SRI method of paddy cultivation
Author(s): Mrunalini A., Ganesh M., Indian Journals, Volume 45, Issue No. 1 | Year 2008

Workload of 30 women belonging to the age group of 21 to 40 years was compared during weeding with the use of Cono weeder in paddy crop grown in SRI method against conventional method of hand weeding. It was found that cono weeder enhanced the pace of work and doubled the productivity, saved time up to 76 per cent and optimized the human effort through improved postures and reduced the muscular fatigue as compared with the hand weeding process.


Year 2006

Does the system of rice intensification outperform conventional best management?: A synopsis of the empirical record
Author(s): A.J. McDonald, P.R. Hobbs and S.J. Riha, Field Crops Research, Elsevier | March 15, 2006

Irrespective of its influence on agricultural productivity, the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has certainly increased discussion over optimal rice cultivation practices, with many agricultural development practitioners at odds with a good deal of the established rice research community. To date, much of the debate over the putative benefits of SRI has been theoretical or speculative and has not persuaded adherents on either side. In aggregate, sufficient empirical data now exist to put SRI performance in a meaningful context by evaluating the productivity of SRI with respect to conventional best management practices (BMP). For this retrospective analysis, 40 site-years of SRI versus BMP comparisons were assembled into a common database. In addition to data from Madagascar where SRI was first conceived, findings from a broad geographic region were compiled including studies from Nepal, China, Thailand, Laos, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. Aside from one set of experiments in Madagascar where SRI more than doubled rice productivity with respect to BMP, we found no evidence of a systematic or even occasional yield advantage of this magnitude elsewhere. Indeed, none of the 35 other experimental records demonstrated yield increases that exceeded BMP by more than 22%. Excluding the Madagascar examples, the typical SRI outcome was negative, with 24 of 35 site-years demonstrating inferior yields to best management and a mean performance of −11%. With recognition that SRI yields in Madagascar are substantially beneath productivity levels predicted by bioclimatic factors, we find no evidence in the empirical record that SRI fundamentally changes the physiological yield potential of rice. Exceptional yield advantages from SRI – or some component(s) thereof – should not be projected beyond Madagascar.


 

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